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Associations of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 pharmacogenetic variation with phenytoin-induced cutaneous adverse drug reactions

The role of cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C9 and CYP2C19 genetic variation in risk for phenytoin-induced cutaneous adverse drug events is not well understood independently of the human leukocyte antigen B (HLA-B)*15:02 risk allele. In the multi-ethnic resource for Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort, we identified 382 participants who filled a phenytoin prescription between 2005 and 2017. These participants included 21 people (5%) who self-identified as Asian, 18 (5%) as black, 29 (8%) as white Hispanic, and 308 (81%) as white non-Hispanic. We identified 264 (69%) CYP2C9*1/*1, 77 (20%) CYP2C9*1/*2, and 29 (8%) CYP2C9*1/*3. We also determined CYP2C19 genotypes, including 112 with the increased activity CYP2C19*17 allele. Using electronic clinical notes, we identified 32 participants (8%) with phenytoin-induced cutaneous adverse events recorded within 100 days of first phenytoin dispensing. Adjusting for age, sex, daily dose, and race/ethnicity, participants with CYP2C9*1/*3 or CYP2C9*2/*2 genotypes were more likely to develop cutaneous adverse events compared with CYP2C9*1/*1 participants (odds ratio 4.47; 95% confidence interval 1.64-11.69; P < 0.01). Among participants with low-intermediate and poor CYP2C9 metabolizer genotypes, eight (22%) who also had extensive and rapid CYP2C19 metabolizer genotypes experienced cutaneous adverse events, compared with none of those who also had intermediate CYP2C19 metabolizer genotypes (P = 0.17). Genetic variation reducing CYP2C9 metabolic activity may increase risk for phenytoin-induced cutaneous adverse events in the absence of the HLA-B*15:02 risk allele.

Authors: Fohner AE; Rettie AE; Thai KK; Ranatunga DK; Lawson BL; Liu VX; Schaefer CA

Clin Transl Sci. 2020 09;13(5):1004-1009. Epub 2020-04-18.

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