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Clinical implications of recent advances in primary open-angle glaucoma genetics

Over the last decade, genetic studies, including genome-wide association studies (GWAS), have accelerated the discovery of genes and genomic regions contributing to primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), a leading cause of irreversible vision loss. Here, we review the findings of genetic studies of POAG published in English prior to September 2019. In total, 74 genomic regions have been associated at a genome-wide level of significance with POAG susceptibility. Recent POAG GWAS provide not only insight into global and ethnic-specific genetic risk factors for POAG susceptibility across populations of diverse ancestry, but also important functional insights underlying biological mechanisms of glaucoma pathogenesis. In this review, we also summarize the genetic overlap between POAG, glaucoma endophenotypes, such as intraocular pressure and vertical cup-disc ratio (VCDR), and other eye disorders. We also discuss approaches recently developed to increase power for POAG locus discovery and to predict POAG risk. Finally, we discuss the recent development of POAG gene-based therapies and future strategies to treat glaucoma effectively. Understanding the genetic architecture of POAG is essential for an earlier diagnosis of this common eye disorder, predictive testing of at-risk patients, and design of gene-based targeted medical therapies none of which are currently available. ??: ?????????(POAG)???????????????, ??????, ?????????, ??????????, ???POAG??????????????????2019?9??????????POAG?????????????????, ??74???????POAG???????????POAG? GWAS????????????????POAG????????????, ?????????????????????????????????, ?????POAG???????????, ??????? (??????????) ??????????????????????????????POAG??????????POAG????????, ???????POAG??????????????????????????POAG????????????????????, ??????????????????????????????????????.

Authors: Choquet H; Wiggs JL; Khawaja AP

Eye (Lond). 2020 01;34(1):29-39. Epub 2019-10-23.

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