OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the frequency and nature of cost/value statements in contemporary heart failure (HF) clinical guidance documents (CGDs). BACKGROUND: In an era of rising health care costs and expanding therapeutic options, there is an increasing need for formal consideration of cost and value in the development of HF CGDs. METHODS: HF CGDs published by major professional cardiovascular organizations between January 2010 and February 2021 were reviewed for the inclusion of cost/value statements. RESULTS: Overall, 33 documents were identified, including 5 (15%) appropriate use criteria, 7 (21%) clinical practice guidelines, and 21 (64%) expert consensus documents. Most CGDs (27 of 33; 82%) included at least 1 cost/value statement, and 20 (61%) CGDs included at least 1 cost/value-related citation. Most of these statements were found in expert consensus documents (77.7%). Three (9%) documents reported estimated costs of recommended interventions, but only 1 estimated out-of-pocket cost. Of 179 cost/value-related statements observed, 116 (64.8%) highlighted the economic impact of HF or HF-related care, 6 (3.4%) advocated for cost/value issues, 15 (8.4%) reported gaps in cost/value evidence, and 42 (23.5%) supported clinical guidance recommendations. Over time, patterns of inclusion of statements and citations of cost/value have been largely stable. CONCLUSIONS: Although most contemporary HF CGDs contain at least 1 cost/value statement, most CGDs focus on the high economic impact of HF and its related care; explicit inclusion of cost/value to support clinical guidance recommendations remains infrequent. These results highlight key opportunities for the integration of formalized cost/value considerations in future HF-focused CGDs.
Cost and Value in Contemporary Heart Failure Clinical Guidance Documents.
Authors: Ostrominski, John W; Hirji, Sameer; Bhatt, Ankeet S; Butler, Javed; Fiuzat, Mona; Fonarow, Gregg C; Heidenreich, Paul A; Januzzi, James L Jr; Lam, Carolyn S P; Maddox, Thomas M; O'Connor, Christopher M; Vaduganathan, Muthiah
JACC Heart Fail. 2022 Jan;10(1):1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.jchf.2021.08.002. Epub 2021 Nov 10.