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Design of a cluster-randomized trial of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of metformin on prevention of type 2 diabetes among prediabetic Mexican adults (the PRuDENTE initiative of Mexico City).

INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a global epidemic, and nations are struggling to implement effective healthcare strategies to reduce the burden. While efficacy studies demonstrate that metformin can reduce incident T2D by half among younger, obese adults with prediabetes, its real-world effectiveness are understudied, and its use for T2D prevention in primary care is low. We describe the design of a pragmatic trial to evaluate the incremental effectiveness of metformin, as an adjunct to a simple lifestyle counseling. METHODS: The “Prevencion de la Diabetes con Ejercicio, Nutricion y Tratamiento” [Diabetes Prevention with Exercise, Nutrition and Treatment; PRuDENTE, (Spanish acronym)] is a cluster-randomized trial in Mexico City’s public primary healthcare system. The study randomly assigns 51 clinics to deliver one of two interventions for 36months: 1) lifestyle only; 2) lifestyle plus metformin, to 3060 patients ages 30-65 with impaired fasting glucose and obesity. The primary endpoint is incident T2D (fasting glucose >/=126mg/dL, or HbA1c >/=6.5%). We will also measure a range of implementation-related process outcomes at the clinic-, clinician- and patient-levels to inform interpretations of effectiveness and enable efforts to refine, adapt, adopt and disseminate the model. We will also estimate the cost-effectiveness of metformin as an adjunct to lifestyle counseling in Mexico. DISCUSSION: Findings from this pragmatic trial will generate new translational knowledge in Mexico and beyond, both with respect to metformin’s real-world effectiveness among an ‘at-risk’ population, and uncovering facilitators and barriers to the reach, adoption and implementation of metformin preventive therapy in public primary care settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial is registered at (NCT03194009).

Authors: Rodriguez LA; Barquera S; Aguilar-Salinas CA; Sepulveda-Amor J; Sanchez-Romero LM; Denova-Gutierrez E; Balderas N; Moreno-Loaeza L; Handley MA; Basu S; Lopez-Arellano O; Gallardo-Hernandez A; Schillinger D

Contemp Clin Trials. 2020 Aug;95:106067. doi: 10.1016/j.cct.2020.106067. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

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