Background: A comorbidity summary score may support early and systematic identification of women at high risk for adverse obstetric outcomes. The objective of this study was to conduct the initial development and validation of an obstetrics comorbidity risk score for automated implementation in the electronic health record (EHR) for clinical use. Methods: The score was developed and validated using EHR data for a retrospective cohort of pregnancies with delivery between 2010 and 2018 at Kaiser Permanente Northern California, an integrated health care system. The outcome used for model development consisted of adverse obstetric events from delivery hospitalization (e.g., eclampsia, hemorrhage, death). Candidate predictors included maternal age, parity, multiple gestation, and any maternal diagnoses assigned in health care encounters in the 12 months before admission for delivery. We used penalized regression for variable selection, logistic regression to fit the model, and internal validation for model evaluation. We also evaluated prenatal model performance at 18 weeks of pregnancy. Results: The development cohort (n = 227,405 pregnancies) had an outcome rate of 3.8% and the validation cohort (n = 41,683) had an outcome rate of 2.9%. Of 276 candidate predictors, 37 were included in the final model. The final model had a validation c-statistic of 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70-0.73). When evaluated at 18 weeks of pregnancy, discrimination was modestly diminished (c-statistic 0.68 [95% CI 0.67-0.70]). Conclusions: The obstetric comorbidity score demonstrated good discrimination for adverse obstetric outcomes. After additional appropriate validation, the score can be automated in the EHR to support early identification of high-risk women and assist efforts to ensure risk-appropriate maternal care.