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Dietary Quality and Glycemic Control Among Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Poor dietary quality, measured by the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010), is associated with risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and type 2 diabetes. The aim was to investigate the association between dietary quality and glycemic control in women with GDM. The study included 1220 women with GDM. Dietary quality was calculated by HEI-2010 score from a Food Frequency Questionnaire administered shortly after GDM diagnosis; higher scores indicate higher dietary quality. Subsequent glycemic control was defined as ?80% of all capillary glucose measurements meeting recommended clinical targets below 95?mg/dL for fasting, and below 140?mg/dL 1-hour glucose after meals. As compared with Quartile 1 of HEI-2010 score, Quartiles 2, 3, and 4 showed increased adjusted odds of overall optimal glycemic control (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 1.90 [1.34-2.70], 1.77 [1.25-2.52], and 1.55 [1.09-2.20], respectively). Increased odds of glycemic control were observed in Quartiles 2, 3, and 4 as compared with Quartile 1 of HEI-2010 score for 1-hour postbreakfast and 1-hour postdinner. Mean capillary glucose was lower in Quartiles 2, 3, and 4 of HEI-2010 score when compared with Quartile 1 for 1-hour postdinner (p?=?0.03). Clinicians should be aware that even a small improvement in diet quality may be beneficial for the achievement of improved glycemic control in women with GDM. Clinical number, NCT01344278.

Authors: Gadgil MD; Ehrlich SF; Zhu Y; Brown SD; Hedderson MM; Crites Y; Ferrara A

J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2019 02;28(2):178-184. Epub 2018-10-30.

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