Anemia is common during critical illness, is associated with adverse clinical outcomes, and often persists after hospitalization. The goal of this investigation is to assess the relationships between post-hospitalization hemoglobin recovery and clinical outcomes after survival of critical illness. This is a population-based observational study of adults (≥18 years) surviving hospitalization for critical illness between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2016 in Olmsted County, Minnesota, United States with hemoglobin concentrations and clinical outcomes assessed through one-year post-hospitalization. Multi-state proportional hazards models were utilized to assess the relationships between 1-month post-hospitalization hemoglobin recovery and hospital readmission or death through one-year after discharge. Among 6460 patients that survived hospitalization for critical illness during the study period, 2736 (42%) were alive, not hospitalized, and had available hemoglobin concentrations assessed at 1-month post-index hospitalization. Median (interquartile range) age was 69 (56, 80) years with 54% of male gender. Overall, 86% of patients had anemia at the time of hospital discharge, with median discharge hemoglobin concentrations of 10.2 (9.1, 11.6) g/dL. In adjusted analyses, each 1 g/dL increase in 1-month hemoglobin recovery was associated with decreased instantaneous hazard for hospital readmission (HR 0.87 [95% CI 0.84-0.90]; p < 0.001) and lower mortality (HR 0.82 [95% CI 0.75-0.89]; p < 0.001) through one-year post-hospitalization. The results were consistent in multiple pre-defined sensitivity analyses. Impaired early post-hospitalization hemoglobin recovery is associated with inferior clinical outcomes in the first year of survival after critical illness. Additional investigations are warranted to evaluate these relationships.