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Evaluation of a Pilot Perioperative Smoking Cessation Program: A Pre-Post Study

Surgical clinic and perioperative settings are critical touchpoints for treating smoking, yet health care systems have not typically prioritized smoking cessation among surgical patients. We evaluated the implementation of a pilot smoking cessation intervention integrated into standard perioperative care. English-speaking adult smokers undergoing elective surgery in Kaiser Permanente San Francisco before (2015) and after (2016-2017) the implementation of a smoking cessation intervention were included. Provider outcomes included counseling referrals, cessation medication orders (between surgery scheduling and surgery), and preoperative carbon monoxide testing. Patient outcomes included counseling and medication use, smoking status at surgery and 30 d after discharge, and surgical complications. Multivariable logistic regression analyses examined pre-to-post intervention changes in outcomes using electronic health record data and 30-d postdischarge telephone surveys. The sample included 276 patients (70% male; 59% non-Hispanic white; mean age = 50 y). There were significant pre-to-post increases in tobacco cessation counseling referrals (3% to 28%, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 11.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.78-32.71) and preoperative carbon monoxide testing (38% to 50%, AOR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.10-3.06). At ∼30 d after discharge, patients in the postintervention period were more likely to report smoking abstinence in the previous 7 d (24% pre, 44% post; AOR = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.11-5.13) and since hospital discharge (18% pre, 39% post; AOR = 3.20, 95% CI = 1.42-7.23). Cessation medication orders and patient use of counseling and medications increased, whereas surgical complications decreased, but pre-to-post differences were not significant. A perioperative smoking cessation program integrated into standard care demonstrated positive smoking-related outcomes; however, larger studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of these programs.

Authors: Young-Wolff KC; Adams SR; Fogelberg R; Goldstein AA; Preston PG

J Surg Res. 2019 05;237:30-40. Epub 2019-01-18.

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