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Healthy preconception and early-pregnancy lifestyle and risk of preterm birth: a prospective cohort study

Preterm birth (PTB) remains a leading cause of neonatal mortality and long-term morbidity. Individual factors have been linked to PTB risk. The impact of a healthy lifestyle, with multiple modifiable prenatal factors, remains unknown. We aimed to examine the associations of preconceptional and early-pregnancy low-risk modifiable factors (individually and in combination) with PTB risk. This prospective cohort study included 2449 women with singleton pregnancies in the Pregnancy Environment and Lifestyle Study. PTB was defined as ultrasound-confirmed obstetric estimate-based gestational age at delivery <37 wk. A set of low-risk modifiable factors were identified: healthy weight (prepregnancy BMI: 18.5-24.9 kg/m2) based on clinical measurements and high-quality diet (Alternate Healthy Eating Index-Pregnancy score ≥75th percentile) and low-to-moderate stress during early pregnancy (Perceived Stress Scale score <75th percentile) assessed at gestational weeks 10-13. Poisson regression estimated adjusted relative risk (aRR) of PTB in association with individual and combined low-risk modifiable prenatal factors, adjusting for sociodemographic, clinical, and other prenatal factors. One hundred and sixty women (6.5%) delivered preterm. Risk of PTB was lower among women who had a healthy weight (aRR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.86), high-quality diet (aRR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.99), and low-to-moderate stress (aRR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.88). Women with 1, 2, or 3 low-risk modifiable prenatal factors compared with none had a 38% (aRR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.45, 1.16), 51% (aRR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.84), or 70% (aRR: 0.30; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.70) lower PTB risk, respectively. Associations of having ≥1 low-risk factor with PTB risk were more pronounced for medically indicated than for spontaneous PTB and for late than for early or moderate PTB. Associations also varied by race or ethnicity, although with overlapping 95% CIs. A healthy prenatal lifestyle with multiple low-risk modifiable factors was associated with lower risk of PTB. Our findings may inform multicomponent preconceptional or early-pregnancy prevention strategies to mitigate PTB risk.

Authors: Zhu, Yeyi; Hedderson, Monique M; Brown, Susan D; Badon, Sylvia E; Feng, Juanran; Quesenberry, Charles P; Ferrara, Assiamira

Am J Clin Nutr. 2021 08 02;114(2):813-821.

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