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Human immunodeficiency virus infection and risks of morbidity and death in adults with incident heart failure

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increases the risk of heart failure (HF), but whether it influences subsequent morbidity and mortality remains unclear. We investigated the risks of hospitalization for HF, HF-related emergency department (ED) visits, and all-cause death in an observational cohort of incident HF patients with and without HIV using data from three large US integrated healthcare delivery systems. We estimated incidence rates and adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) by HIV status at the time of HF diagnosis for subsequent outcomes. We identified 448 persons living with HIV (PLWH) and 3429 without HIV who developed HF from a frequency-matched source cohort of 38 868 PLWH and 386 586 without HIV. Mean age was 59.5 ± 11.3 years with 9.8% women and 31.8% Black, 13.1% Hispanic, and 2.2% Asian/Pacific Islander. Compared with persons without HIV, PLWH had similar adjusted rates of HF hospitalization [aHR 1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81-1.26] and of HF-related ED visits [aHR 1.22 (95% CI: 0.99-1.50)], but higher adjusted rates of all-cause death [aHR 1.31 (95% CI: 1.08-1.58)]. Adjusted rates of HF-related morbidity and all-cause death were directionally consistent across a wide range of CD4 counts but most pronounced in the subset with a baseline CD4 count <200 or 200-499 cells/μL. In a large, diverse cohort of adults with incident HF receiving care within integrated healthcare delivery systems, PLWH were at an independently higher risk of all-cause death but not HF hospitalizations or HF-related ED visits. Future studies investigating modifiable HIV-specific risk factors may facilitate more personalized care to optimize outcomes for PLWH and HF.

Authors: Avula, Harshith R; Ambrosy, Andrew P; Silverberg, Michael J; Lee, Keane K; Go, Alan S; et al.

Eur Heart J Open. 2021 Nov;1(3):oeab040. Epub 2021-12-01.

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