End-stage renal disease is associated with elevations in circulating prolactin concentrations, but the association of prolactin concentrations with intermediate health outcomes and the effects of hemodialysis frequency on changes in serum prolactin have not been examined. The FHN Daily and Nocturnal Dialysis Trials compared the effects of conventional thrice weekly hemodialysis with in-center daily hemodialysis (6 days/week) and nocturnal home hemodialysis (6 nights/week) over 12 months and obtained measures of health-related quality of life, self-reported physical function, mental health and cognition. Serum prolactin concentrations were measured at baseline and 12-month follow-up in 70% of the FHN Trial cohort to examine the associations among serum prolactin concentrations and physical, mental and cognitive function and the effects of hemodialysis frequency on serum prolactin. Among 177 Daily Trial and 60 Nocturnal Trial participants with baseline serum prolactin measurements, the median serum prolactin concentration was 65 ng/mL (25th-75th percentile 48-195 ng/mL) and 81% had serum prolactin concentrations >30 ng/mL. While serum prolactin was associated with sex (higher in women), we observed no association between baseline serum prolactin and age, dialysis vintage, and baseline measures of physical, mental and cognitive function. Furthermore, there was no significant effect of hemodialysis frequency on serum prolactin in either of the two trials. Serum prolactin concentrations were elevated in the large majority of patients with ESRD, but were not associated with several measures of health status. Circulating prolactin levels also do not appear to decrease in response to more frequent hemodialysis over a one-year period.