OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize the association between decongestion therapy and 30-day outcomes in patients hospitalized for heart failure (HF).BACKGROUND: Loop diuretic agents are commonly prescribed for the treatment of symptomatic congestion in patients hospitalized for HF, but the association between loop diuretic agent dose response and post-discharge outcomes has not been well characterized.METHODS: Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the association among average loop diuretic agent dose, congestion status at discharge, and 30-day post-discharge all-cause mortality and HF rehospitalization in 3,037 subjects hospitalized with worsening HF enrolled in the EVEREST (Efficacy of Vasopressin Antagonism in Heart Failure: Outcome Study With Tolvaptan) study.RESULTS: In univariate analysis, subjects exposed to high-dose diuretic agents (≥160 mg/day) had greater risk for the combined outcome than subjects exposed to low-dose diuretic agents (18.9% vs. 10.0%; hazard ratio: 2.00; 95% confidence interval: 1.64 to 2.46; p < 0.0001). After adjustment for pre-specified covariates of disease severity, the association between diuretic agent dose and outcomes was not significant (hazard ratio: 1.11; 95% confidence interval: 0.89 to 1.38; p = 0.35). Of the 3,011 subjects with clinical assessments of volume status, 2,063 (69%) had little or no congestion at hospital discharge. Congestion status at hospital discharge did not modify the association between diuretic agent exposure and the combined endpoint (p for interaction = 0.84).CONCLUSIONS: Short-term diuretic agent exposure during hospital treatment for worsening HF was not an independent predictor of 30-day all-cause mortality and HF rehospitalization in multivariate analysis. Congestion status at discharge did not modify the association between diuretic agent dose and clinical outcomes.