Postcolonoscopy colorectal cancers (PCCRCs) are defined as those detected ≤10 years after an index colonoscopy negative for cancer, but modifiable risk factors are not well established in large, community-based populations. We evaluated risk factors from the index colonoscopy for PCCRCs diagnosed 1 to 10 years after an index colonoscopy using a case-control design. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were adjusted for potential confounders. A proximal polyp ≥10 mm (OR, 8.18; 95% CI, 4.59-14.60), distal polyp ≥10 mm (OR, 3.30; 95% CI, 1.65-6.58), adenoma with (OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 1.83-5.68) and without advanced histology (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.37-2.55), and an incomplete colonoscopy (OR, 5.52; 95% CI, 2.98-10.21) were associated with PCCRC. Risk factors for early versus late cancers (12-36 months vs >36 months to 10 years after examination) included incomplete polyp excision in the colonic segment of the subsequent cancer (OR, 4.76; 95% CI, 2.35-9.65); failure to examine the segment (OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.27-4.60); and a polyp ≥10 mm in the segment (OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.53-3.70). A total of 559 of 1206 patients with PCCRC (46.4%) had 1 or more risk factors that were significant for PCCRC (incomplete examination, large polyp, or any adenoma). In a large community-based study with comprehensive capture of PCCRCs, almost half of PCCRCs had potentially modifiable factors related to polyp surveillance or removal and examination completeness. These represent potential high-yield targets to further increase the effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening.