BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Information about the risk of stroke in current postmenopausal hormone users is limited. METHODS: In this case-control study, women aged 45 to 74 years hospitalized with a fatal or nonfatal stroke in any of 10 Northern California Kaiser Permanente facilities during the period November 1991 to November 1994 were identified as cases. Controls were selected at random from female Health Plan members. Data regarding use of estrogen plus progestogen or estrogen alone were obtained in interviews. RESULTS: The analysis was based on nonproxy responses from 349 cases of ischemic stroke and 349 matched control subjects. After adjustment for confounders, the odds ratio for ischemic stroke in current hormone users was 1.03 (95% confidence interval, 0.65 to 1.65). The odds ratios for ischemic stroke in current hormone users showed no clear trend of increasing or decreasing risk in relation to duration of hormone use. The odds ratio for ischemic stroke in past hormone users was 0.84 (95% confidence interval, 0.54 to 1.32). CONCLUSIONS: In this study postmenopausal hormone use was not associated with an increase or decrease in the risk of ischemic stroke, a finding that is consistent with the body of literature on this topic.