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Liver Enzymes in Early to Mid-pregnancy, Insulin Resistance, and Gestational Diabetes Risk: A Longitudinal Analysis

Background: Liver enzymes may be implicated in glucose homeostasis; liver enzymes progressively change during pregnancy but longitudinal data during pregnancy in relation to insulin resistance and gestational diabetes (GDM) risk are lacking. We investigated longitudinal associations of γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) with insulin secretion and resistance markers across early to mid-pregnancy and subsequent GDM risk. Methods: Within the prospective Pregnancy Environment and Lifestyle Study cohort, 117 GDM cases were ascertained and matched to 232 non-GDM controls in a nested case-control study. Fasting blood samples were collected at two clinic visits (CV1, gestational weeks 10-13; CV2, gestational weeks 16-19). Linear mixed model and conditional logistic regression were used, adjusting for major risk factors for GDM. Results: In repeated measure analysis, after adjusting for confounders including body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio, GGT per standard deviation increment was associated with elevated fasting glucose and HOMA-IR (% change = 1.51%, 95% CI 0.56-2.46% and 7.43%, 95% CI 1.76-13.11%, respectively) and decreased adiponectin (% change = -2.86%, 95% CI-5.53 to -0.20%) from CV1 to CV2. At CV1 and CV2, GGT levels comparing the highest versus lowest quartile were associated with 3.01-fold (95% CI 1.32-6.85) and 3.51-fold (95% CI 1.37-8.97) increased risk of GDM, respectively. Progressively increased (

Authors: Zhu Y; Hedderson MM; Quesenberry CP; Feng J; Ferrara A

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2018;9:581. Epub 2018-10-02.

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