Maternal immune activity has been linked to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined maternal occupational exposure to asthma-causing agents during pregnancy in relation to ASD risk. Our sample included 463 ASD cases and 710 general population controls from the Study to Explore Early Development whose mothers reported at least one job during pregnancy. Asthmagen exposure was estimated from a published job-exposure matrix. The adjusted odds ratio for ASD comparing asthmagen-exposed to unexposed was 1.39 (95 % CI 0.96-2.02). Maternal workplace asthmagen exposure was not associated with ASD risk in this study, but this result does not exclude some involvement of maternal exposure to asthma-causing agents in ASD.