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Perinatal Complications in Individuals in California With or Without SARS-CoV-2 Infection During Pregnancy

Additional research from population-based studies is needed to inform the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy and to provide health risk information to pregnant individuals. To assess the risk of perinatal complications associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and to describe factors associated with hospitalizations. This population-based cohort study included 43 886 pregnant individuals with longitudinal electronic health record data from preconception to delivery who delivered at Kaiser Permanente Northern California between March 1, 2020, and March 16, 2021. Individuals with diagnostic codes for COVID-19 that did not have a confirmatory polymerase chain reaction test for SARS-CoV-2 were excluded. SARS-CoV-2 infection detected by polymerase chain reaction test (from 30 days before conception to 7 days after delivery) as a time varying exposure. Severe maternal morbidity including 21 conditions (eg, acute myocardial infarction, acute renal failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and sepsis) that occurred at any time during pregnancy or delivery; preterm birth; pregnancy hypertensive disorders; gestational diabetes; venous thromboembolism (VTE); stillbirth; cesarean delivery; and newborn birth weight and respiratory conditions. Standardized mean differences between individuals with and without SARS-CoV-2 were calculated. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for the association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and perinatal complications and hospitalization and to consider the timing of SARS-CoV-2 infection relative to outcomes. In this study of 43 886 pregnant individuals (mean [SD] age, 30.7 [5.2] years), individuals with a SARS-CoV-2 infection (1332 [3.0%]) were more likely to be younger, Hispanic, multiparous individuals with a higher neighborhood deprivation index and obesity or chronic hypertension. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and smoking status, individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection had higher risk for severe maternal morbidity (HR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.91-3.13), preterm birth (<37 weeks; HR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.75-2.47), and VTE (HR, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.09-8.74) than individuals without SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 infection was also associated with increased risk of medically indicated preterm birth (HR, 2.56; 95% CI, 2.06-3.19); spontaneous preterm birth (HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.22-2.13); and early (HR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.49-4.24), moderate (HR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.25-3.80), and late (HR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.61-2.37) preterm birth. Among individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection, 76 (5.7%) had a hospitalization; pregestational diabetes (HR, 7.03; 95% CI, 2.22-22.2) and Asian or Pacific Islander (HR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.06-5.11) and Black (HR, 3.14; 95% CI, 1.24-7.93) race and ethnicity were associated with an increased risk of hospitalization. In this cohort study, SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with increased risk of severe maternal morbidity, preterm birth, and VTE. The study findings inform clinicians and patients about the risk of perinatal complications associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy and support vaccination of pregnant individuals and those planning conception.

Authors: Ferrara, Assiamira; Hedderson, Monique M; Zhu, Yeyi; Avalos, Lyndsay A; Kuzniewicz, Michael W; Myers, Laura C; Ngo, Amanda L; Gunderson, Erica P; Ritchie, Jenna L; Quesenberry, Charles P; Greenberg, Mara

JAMA Intern Med. 2022 05 01;182(5):503-512.

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