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Regionalization of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment in a Community-Based Population: Implementation and Early Results

Regionalization of care for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has not been described for community-based settings. In 2015, we shifted AML induction from 21 local centers to 3 regional centers. Using time-specific inception cohorts, we assessed whether regionalization was associated with the frequency of use of induction therapy, receipt of bone marrow transplantation, 60-day mortality (treatment toxicity), and 180-day mortality (treatment effectiveness). Information for all adult patients diagnosed with AML from 2013 to 2017 was obtained from the electronic health record. Multivariable methods were used to estimate the adjusted associations of induction, bone marrow transplantation, and death in relation to year of diagnosis before and after regionalization. Of 661 patients diagnosed during 2013 to 2017, 53% were ≥ 70 years, 22% were ≥ 80 years, and 10% died within the week following diagnosis. Comparing 2017 with 2013, the proportion of patients who received induction therapy increased 2.88 times (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.55-5.35), and the proportion of non-acute promyelocytic leukemia patients receiving bone marrow transplantation increased 2.00 times (95% CI = 0.89-4.50). Regionalization was associated with lower 180-day mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.44-0.92), whereas change in 60-day mortality was not statistically significant (HR = 0.67; 95%CI = 0.43-1.04). In this community-based population, many patients were of advanced age yet benefitted from AML induction therapy delivered at a regionally specialized center. These early results suggest the benefit of regionalizing subspecialty leukemia care.

Authors: Law, Lisa Y; Uong, Stephen P; Vempaty, Hyma T; Nguyen, Vu H; Baer, David; Liu, Vincent X; Herrinton, Lisa J

Perm J. 2021 05;25.

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