OBJECTIVE: To describe rates and identify risk factors for rehospitalization during the first year of life among infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study of infants born at a gestational age (GA) <33 weeks, between 1995 and 1999. BPD was defined as requirement of supplemental oxygen and/or mechanical ventilation at 36 weeks' corrected GA. The outcome was rehospitalization for any reason before first birthday. RESULTS: In the first year of life, 118 of 238 (49%) infants with BPD were rehospitalized, more than twice the rate of rehospitalization of the non-BPD population, which was 309 of 1359 (23%) (P=<.0001). No measured factor discriminated between those infants with BPD who were and were not rehospitalized, even when only rehospitalizations for respiratory diagnoses were considered. CONCLUSIONS: Among premature infants, BPD substantially increases the risk of rehospitalization during the first year of life. Neither demographic nor physiologic factors predicted rehospitalization among the infants with BPD. Other factors, such as air quality of home environment, passive smoking exposure, respiratory syncytial virus prophylaxis, breast-feeding status, and/or parenting and primary care management styles, should be examined in future studies.