Efficacy of the live-attenuated herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine (ZVL) wanes substantially over time. We evaluated immunogenicity and safety of the adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV) in previous ZVL recipients. Adults aged ≥65 years who were previously vaccinated with ZVL ≥5 years earlier (n = 215) were group-matched with ZVL-naive individuals (n = 215) and vaccinated with RZV. Glycoprotein E (gE)-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses and the correlation between them, polyfunctional gE-specific CD4 T-cell responses, safety, and confirmed HZ cases were assessed. Through 12 months after dose 2, anti-gE antibody concentrations, gE-specific CD4 T-cell frequencies, and activation marker profiles were similar between groups. Safety outcomes were also similar. No HZ episodes were confirmed. RZV induced strong humoral and polyfunctional cell-mediated immune responses that persisted above prevaccination levels through 1 year after dose 2 in adults aged ≥65 years irrespective of previous ZVL vaccination. The RZV safety profile was not affected. NCT02581410.