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The Changing Epidemiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition with lifelong impacts. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to ASD etiology, which remains incompletely understood. Research on ASD epidemiology has made significant advances in the past decade. Current prevalence is estimated to be at least 1.5% in developed countries, with recent increases primarily among those without comorbid intellectual disability. Genetic studies have identified a number of rare de novo mutations and gained footing in the areas of polygenic risk, epigenetics, and gene-by-environment interaction.Epidemiologic investigations focused on nongenetic factors have established advanced parental age and preterm birth as ASD risk factors, indicated that prenatal exposure to air pollution and short interpregnancy interval are potential risk factors, and suggested the need for further exploration of certain prenatal nutrients, metabolic conditions, and exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals. We discuss future challenges and goals for ASD epidemiology as well as public health implications. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health Volume 38 is March 20, 2017. Please see for revised estimates.

Authors: Lyall K; Croen L; Daniels J; Fallin MD; Ladd-Acosta C; Lee BK; Park BY; Snyder NW; Schendel D; Volk HE; Windham GC; Newschaffer C

Annu Rev Public Health. 2016 Dec 21.

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