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Torsade de pointes: A nested case-control study in an integrated healthcare delivery system

TdP is a form of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia which develops in the setting of a prolonged QT interval. There are limited data describing risk factors, treatment, and outcomes of this potentially fatal arrhythmia. Our goals were as follows: (1) to validate cases presenting with Torsade de Pointes (TdP), (2) to identify modifiable risk factors, and (3) to describe the management strategies used for TdP and its prognosis in a real-world healthcare setting. Case-control study (with 2:1 matching on age, sex, and race/ethnicity) nested within the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Aging (GERA) cohort. Follow-up of the cohort for case ascertainment was between January 01, 2005 and December 31, 2018. A total of 56 cases of TdP were confirmed (incidence rate = 3.6 per 100,000 persons/years). The average (SD) age of the TdP cases was 74 (13) years, 55 percent were female, and 16 percent were non-white. The independent predictors of TdP were potassium concentration <3.6 mEq/L (OR = 10.6), prior history of atrial fibrillation/flutter (OR = 6.2), QTc >480 ms (OR = 4.4) and prior history of coronary artery disease (OR = 2.6). Exposure to furosemide and amiodarone was significantly greater in cases than in controls. The most common treatment for TdP was IV magnesium (78.6%) and IV potassium repletion (73.2%). The in-hospital and 1-year mortality rates for TdP cases were 10.7% and 25.0% percent, respectively. These findings may inform quantitative multivariate risk indices for the prediction of TdP and could guide practitioners on which patients may qualify for continuous ECG monitoring and/or electrolyte replacement therapy.

Authors: Mantri, Neha; Lu, Meng; Zaroff, Jonathan G; Risch, Neil; Hoffmann, Thomas; Oni-Orisan, Akinyemi; Lee, Catherine; Iribarren, Carlos

Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 2022 01;27(1):e12888. Epub 2021-09-21.

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