The incidence of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) has been decreasing over time with Helicobacter pylori eradication and use of acid-suppressing therapies. However, PUD remains a common cause of hospitalization in the United States. We aimed to evaluate contemporary national trends in the incidence, treatment patterns, and outcomes for PUD-related hospitalizations and compare care delivery by hospital rurality. Data from the National Inpatient Sample were used to estimate weighted annual rates of PUD-related hospitalizations. Temporal trends were evaluated by joinpoint regression and expressed as annual percent change with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We determined the proportion of hospitalizations requiring endoscopic and surgical interventions, stratified by clinical presentation and rurality. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess independent predictors of in-hospital mortality and postoperative morbidity. There was a 25.8% reduction (P < 0.001) in PUD-related hospitalizations from 2005 to 2014, although the rate of decline decreased from -7.2% per year (95% CI: 13.2% to -0.7%) before 2008 to -2.1% per year (95% CI: 3.0% to -1.1%) after 2008. In-hospital mortality was 2.4% (95% CI: 2.4%-2.5%). Upper endoscopy (84.3% vs 78.4%, P < 0.001) and endoscopic hemostasis (26.1% vs 16.8%, P < 0.001) were more likely to be performed in urban hospitals, whereas surgery was performed less frequently (9.7% vs 10.5%, P < 0.001). In multivariable logistic regression, patients managed in urban hospitals were at higher risk for postoperative morbidity (odds ratio 1.16 [95% CI: 1.04-1.29]), but not death (odds ratio 1.11 [95% CI: 1.00-1.23]). The rate of decline in hospitalization rates for PUD has stabilized over time, although there remains significant heterogeneity in treatment patterns by hospital rurality.