Sign In

Lisa A. Croen, PhD

People

Kaiser Permanente Division of Research
2000 Broadway
Oakland, CA 94612

(510) 891-3463 (phone)
lisa.a.croen@kp.org
Kaiser Permanente Researcher Profiles


Lisa Croen, PhD, is a senior research scientist at the Division of Research (DOR), Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC), and the director of the Kaiser Permanente Autism Research Program. Her research interests include the epidemiology of autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders, environmental exposures and gene/environment interaction, and adverse perinatal outcomes. Currently, Dr. Croen is the principal investigator of the NIH-funded Early Markers for Autism study (EMA), and site principal investigator on two large federally funded autism studies: the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED) and the Early Autism Risk Longitudinal Investigation (EARLI). She is also co-investigator on the California Autism Twins Study (CATS). In collaboration with clinical colleagues, she is conducting a mixed methods study to evaluate autism treatments at KPNC, and investigating health status and healthcare utilization of adults with autism. Dr. Croen received her master's degree in public health and her doctorate in epidemiology, both from the University of California, Berkeley.

Current Position(s):

  • Research Scientist III, Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California
  • Director, Autism Research Program

Section Affiliations:

Primary Research Interests:

  • Epidemiology of autism and neurodevelopmental disorders
  • Environmental exposures and gene/environment interactions

Related Website(s):

Prenatal Exposure to Metals and Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder in MARBLES and EARLI

The peri-conceptual and prenatal periods of gestation are the most likely window of susceptibility for ASD; thus, maternal exposures and maternal genetic susceptibility are critical targets of investigation. Maternal exposure to heavy metals has been recognized for many years as a cause of fetal harm, particularly neurodevelopmental. In this study, we combine two prospective, enriched risk, pregnancy cohorts with available pregnancy and birth biosamples for metals and genetic measurement, with early-life developmental phenotype data, with age 3 ASD diagnosis status assessed by ASD researchers, and enough outcomes to provide adequate power given the enriched design. Further, we consider the utility of epigenetic measures in the study of these environmental risk factors, given evidence of the susceptibility of DNA methylation changes from metals exposure and the potential role of DNA methylation as a mediator of ASD risk or as a post-natal biomarker of metals exposure.
Investigator: Croen, Lisa
Funder: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

Health System Integration of Tools to Improve Primary Care for Autistic Adults

The objective of this project is to use a CBPR approach to understand how to best integrate the AASPIRE Healthcare Toolkit, an online healthcare toolkit aimed at improving primary care services for autistic adults, into the KP Northern CA healthcare system as we prepare for the larger effectiveness-implementation trial. We will do so by achieving the following specific aims: 1) To determine how to integrate use of the toolkit into the Kaiser systems. 2) To assess the acceptability and feasibility of both the intervention and the research protocols. 3) To further explore potential mechanisms of action.
Investigator: Croen, Lisa
Funder: National Institute of Mental Health

Understanding Family Economic Impact of Chronic Child Health Conditions

This study will address an important knowledge gap by estimating financial and time costs for families of children with autism. We will recruit 1,500 families of children 3-17 years old from geographically and ethnically diverse integrated health systems: Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Kaiser Permanente Georgia, Kaiser Permanente Hawaii and the OCHIN network of federally qualified health plans. Using the Family Economic Impact Interview, we will follow participating families for one year to collect information on family costs and examine what factors contribute to these costs.
Investigator: Croen, Lisa
Funder: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

Prenatal SSRI Exposure, Maternal and Child Genotype, and Autism Spectrum Disorders

The prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) has increased rapidly over recent decades. Among many environmental exposures that have also increased in frequency is the use of anti-depressant medications during pregnancy. Approximately 10% of pregnant women are prescribed selective seratonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) SSRIs and other anti-depressant medication cross the placenta and are secreted in breast milk, thus raising concerns about adverse effects on the fetus or infant. This study will expand upon previous findings of an association between prenatal SSRI exposure and autism risk by utilizing data and biospecimens already collected in the SEED study to explore main and joint effects of maternal antidepressant use, maternal psychiatric disease history, and maternal and child genetic susceptibility.
Investigator: Croen, Lisa
Funder: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

Prospective Evaluation of Air Pollution, Cognition and Autism from Birth Onward

This study will examine the relationship between perinatal and early life air pollution exposure and early longitudinal measures of cognitive ability and ASD in two prospective samples - Markers of Autism Risk in Babies, Learning Early Signs (MARBLES) and Early Autism Risk Longitudinal Investigation (EARLI). Aim 1 is to assign air pollutant exposure using geographic information systems (GIS) technology and novel biomarker measurements. Aim 2 is to examine the effect of air pollutant exposure on the trajectory of cognitive development. Aim 3 is to evaluate the effect of air pollution exposure on cross-sectional and longitudinal measures of autistic traits and ASD diagnoses.
Investigator: Croen, Lisa
Funder: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

Neurodevelopment of Cognitive Control in Autism: Adolescence to Young Adulthood

This study compares the developmental trajectory of behavioral measures of cognitive control from adolescence into young adulthood in typical individuals (TYP) and individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). We predict that approximately 2/3 of those with ASD will show a persistent lag in performance on cognitive control tasks through young adulthood, and that in those with ASD, cognitive control abilities will predict performance in complex information processing. We will also examine the development of the neural mechanisms of cognitive control from adolescence to young adulthood. We hypothesize that those with ASD will employ more reactive cognitive control than their TYP counterparts. Lastly, we will investigate relationships between the two modes of cognitive control, and functional and mental health outcomes between adolescence and young adulthood in the ASD group.
Investigator: Croen, Lisa
Funder: National Institute of Mental Health

Folic Acid Prevention Pathways for ASD in High Risk Families

Autism spectrum disorders affect 1 in 68 children in the US. There is evidence for a potentially large role for the early in-utero environment, including gestational nutrition, in ASD etiology. Maternal folic acid is one of the first modifiable factors with the potential to reduce occurrence of ASD. In addition to being essential for neurodevelopment, folate is a primary methyl-donor for methylation reactions. The time near conception is an especially critical period for adequate methyl supply during cycles of active de-methylation and re-methylation during embryogenesis, interactions with genetic and environmental risk factors, and the greatest reduction in ASD risk associated with higher maternal folic acid intake. Using data and samples from mother-child pairs in two large prospective studies, this study proposes to examine specific pathways for prevention of ASD through maternal dietary and supplemental folate intake.
Investigator: Croen, Lisa
Funder: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

Transitioning Pediatric Patients with ASD to Adult Care

This study includes the following aims: 1) Investigate prevalence of medical and psychiatric co-morbidities and rate of service and medication utilization among transition-age (15-25 years) patients with ASD in KPNC; 2) Determine barriers and facilitators of smooth transitions from pediatric to adult care; and 3) Develop and test tools and healthcare delivery processes to improve transitions from pediatric to adult care. Based on information collected in open-ended interviews and other appropriate modes, and on observations, we will collaborate with a multidisciplinary team of clinical providers, patients and caregivers to develop tools and resources and health care delivery processes that support a smooth transition from pediatric to adult care. The study is co-funded by Special Hope Foundation and Autism Speaks.
Investigator: Croen, Lisa
Funder: Autism Speaks

Design of study of fetal pharmaceutical use of the 1950s through 70s

This study will explore the feasibility of accessing information on the nature and extent of prenatal pharmaceutical usage in the late 1950s through the 1970s.
Investigator: Croen, Lisa
Funder: 

Early Life Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Child Growth, Adiposity, and Neurodevelopment

We hypothesize that in-utero exposures to commonly used endocrine disrupting chemicals, such as PFCs and PBDEs, individually and/or in combination, have adverse effects on child obesity and neurodevelopment through possible common pathways. Our aims are: Aim 1. To evaluate whether in-utero exposures to maternal PFCs and PBDEs, individually and/or in combination, are associated with infant growth, adiposity and neurodevelopment. Aim 2. To evaluate whether in-utero PFCs and PBDEs exposures are associated with metabolic determinants of obesity and neurodevelopment . Aim 3. To explore whether in-utero PFCs and PBDEs exposures are associated with infant patterns of DNA methylation. Aim 4. To identify infant, maternal and paternal factors that modify the association of exposure to in-utero PFCs and PBDEs exposures and with infant growth, adiposity and neurodevelopment.
Investigator: Croen, Lisa; Ferrara, Assiamira
Funder: National Institutes of Health

Role of Pre-natal Vitamin D and Gene Interactions in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Leveraging an Existing Case-Control Study

This study is the first to investigate the role of perinatal vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency in ASD etiology, as modulated by race and genes involved in vitamin D metabolism and receptor activity, in a large, racially-diverse cohort. The role of vitamin D in a number of health conditions has gained recent attention, concurrent with high frequency of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency being documented, attributed to changes in lifestyle. Evidence indicating higher risk of autism by factors shown to be related to lower vitamin D levels and recent advances in the understanding of the role of vitamin D on brain and immune function support a potential role in autism etiology that warrants rigorous investigation. A few studies of children with autism (or their mothers) have found lower vitamin D levels, but they all were limited by small samples and measurement of levels after the critical period of brain development.
Investigator: Croen, Lisa
Funder: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

California CADDRE-SEED Phase II

The goal of this project is to continue the SEED study, a case-control study of genetic and environmental risk factors for autism. The major goal of the project is to conduct a multi-site collaborative epidemiologic study to investigate risk and causal factors for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and phenotypic subgroups of ASD using a population-based case-cohort study design.
Investigator: Croen, Lisa
Funder: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
No results found matching criteria

A Survey of Parents with Children on the Autism Spectrum: Experience with Services and Treatments

Author(s): Becerra TA; Massolo ML; Yau VM; Owen-Smith AA; Lynch FL; Crawford PM; Pearson KA; Pomichowski ME; Quinn VP; Yoshida CK; Croen LA
PubMed abstract

Medical Conditions in the First Years of Life Associated with Future Diagnosis of ASD in Children

Author(s): Alexeeff SE; Yau V; Qian Y; Davignon M; Lynch F; Crawford P; Davis R; Croen LA
PubMed abstract

Independent Maternal and Fetal Genetic Effects on Mid-gestational Circulating Levels of Environmental Pollutants

Author(s): Traglia M; Croen LA; Lyall K; Windham GC; Kharrazi M; DeLorenze GN; Torres AR; Weiss LA
PubMed abstract

Umbilical cord blood androgen levels and ASD-related phenotypes at 12 and 36 months in an enriched risk cohort study

Author(s): Park BY; Lee BK; Burstyn I; Tabb LP; Keelan JA; Whitehouse AJ; Croen LA; Fallin MD; Hertz-Picciotto I; Montgomery O; Newschaffer CJ
PubMed abstract

The Changing Epidemiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders

Author(s): Lyall K; Croen L; Daniels J; Fallin MD; Ladd-Acosta C; Lee BK; Park BY; Snyder NW; Schendel D; Volk HE; Windham GC; Newschaffer C
PubMed abstract

The Kaiser Permanente Northern California research program on genes, environment, and health (RPGEH) pregnancy cohort; study design, methodology and baseline characteristics.

Author(s): Hedderson MM; Ferrara A; Avalos LA; Van den Eeden SK; Gunderson EP; Li DK; Altschuler A; Woo S; Rowell S; Choudhary V; Xu F; Flanagan T; Schaefer C; Croen LA;
PubMed abstract

Association Between Influenza Infection and Vaccination During Pregnancy and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder

Author(s): Zerbo O; Qian Y; Yoshida C; Fireman BH; Klein NP; Croen LA
PubMed abstract

Differences in testosterone and its precursors by sex of the offspring in meconium

Author(s): Frey AJ; Park BY; Schriver ER; Feldman DR; Parry S; Croen LA; Fallin DM; Hertz-Picciotto I; Newschaffer CJ; Snyder NW
PubMed abstract

Psychotropic Medication Use among Insured Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Author(s): Madden JM; Lakoma MD; Lynch FL; Rusinak D; Owen-Smith AA; Coleman KJ; Quinn VP; Yau VM; Qian YX; Croen LA
PubMed abstract

Pleiotropic Mechanisms Indicated for Sex Differences in Autism

Author(s): Mitra I; Tsang K; Ladd-Acosta C; Croen LA; Aldinger KA; Hendren RL; Traglia M; Lavillaureix A; Zaitlen N; Oldham MC; Levitt P; Nelson S; Amaral DG; Herz-Picciotto I; Fallin MD; Weiss LA
PubMed abstract

Risk of Autism Associated With Hyperbilirubinemia and Phototherapy

Author(s): Wu YW; Kuzniewicz MW; Croen L; Walsh EM; McCulloch CE; Newman TB
PubMed abstract

Polychlorinated Biphenyl and Organochlorine Pesticide Concentrations in Maternal Mid-Pregnancy Serum Samples: Association with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability

Author(s): Lyall K; Croen LA; Sj?din A; Yoshida CK; Zerbo O; Kharrazi M; Windham GC
PubMed abstract

Maternal Exposure to Occupational Asthmagens During Pregnancy and Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Study to Explore Early Development

Author(s): Singer AB; Windham GC; Croen LA; Daniels JL; Lee BK; Qian Y; Schendel DE; Fallin MD; Burstyn I
PubMed abstract

Evaluating Changes in the Prevalence of the Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs)

Author(s): Rice CE; Rosanoff M; Dawson G; Durkin MS; Croen LA; Singer A; Yeargin-Allsopp M
PubMed abstract

The autism symptom interview, school-age: A brief telephone interview to identify autism spectrum disorders in 5-to-12-year-old children

Author(s): Bishop SL; Huerta M; Gotham K; Alexandra Havdahl K; Pickles A; Duncan A; Hus Bal V; Croen L; Lord C
PubMed abstract

Autism with intellectual disability is associated with increased levels of maternal cytokines and chemokines during gestation

Author(s): Jones KL; Croen LA; Yoshida CK; Heuer L; Hansen R; Zerbo O; DeLorenze GN; Kharrazi M; Yolken R; Ashwood P; Van de Water J
PubMed abstract

Prenatal and Newborn Immunoglobulin Levels from Mother-Child Pairs and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders

Author(s): Grether JK; Ashwood P; Van de Water J; Yolken RH; Anderson MC; Torres AR; Westover JB; Sweeten T; Hansen RL; Kharrazi M; Croen LA
PubMed abstract

​Maternal mid-pregnancy C-reactive protein and risk of autism spectrum disorders: the early markers for autism study

Author(s): Zerbo O; Traglia M; Yoshida C; Heuer LS; Ashwood P; Delorenze GN; Hansen RL; Kharrazi M; Van de Water J; Yolken RH; Weiss LA; Croen LA;
PubMed abstract

Demographic profile of families and children in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED): Case-control study of autism spectrum disorder

Author(s): DiGuiseppi CG; Daniels JL; Fallin DM; Rosenberg SA; Schieve LA; Thomas KC; Windham GC; Goss CW; Soke GN; Currie DW; Singer AB; Lee LC; Bernal P; Croen LA; Miller LA; Pinto-Martin JA; Young LM; Schendel DE
PubMed abstract

Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Production of BDNF following Mitogen Stimulation in Early Onset and Regressive Autism

Author(s): Enstrom A; Onore C; Tarver A; Hertz-Picciotto I; Hansen R; Croen L; Van de Water J; Ashwood P
PubMed abstract

Presence of an epigenetic signature of prenatal cigarette smoke exposure in childhood

Author(s): Ladd-Acosta C; Shu C; Lee BK; Gidaya N; Singer A; Schieve LA; Schendel DE; Jones N; Daniels JL; Windham GC; Newschaffer CJ; Croen LA; Feinberg AP; Daniele Fallin M
PubMed abstract

Health Services Utilization Among Children With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorders

Author(s): Cummings JR; Lynch FL; Rust KC; Coleman KJ; Madden JM; Owen-Smith AA; Yau VM; Qian Y; Pearson KA; Crawford PM; Massolo ML; Quinn VP; Croen LA
PubMed abstract

The health status of adults on the autism spectrum

Author(s): Croen LA; Zerbo O; Qian Y; Massolo ML; Rich S; Sidney S; Kripke C;
PubMed abstract

A Study of Physician Knowledge and Experience with Autism in Adults in a Large Integrated Healthcare System

Author(s): Zerbo O; Massolo ML; Qian Y; Croen LA
PubMed abstract

Prevalence and Predictors of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use in a Large Insured Sample of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Author(s): Owen-Smith AA; Bent S; Lynch FL; Coleman KJ; Yau VM; Pearson KA; Massolo ML; Quinn V; Croen LA
PubMed abstract

Genotyping Informatics and Quality Control for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort

Author(s): Kvale MN; Hesselson S; Hoffmann TJ; Cao Y; Chan D; Connell S; Croen LA; Dispensa BP; Eshragh J; Finn A; Gollub J; Iribarren C; Jorgenson E; Kushi LH; Lao R; Lu Y; Ludwig D; Mathauda GK; McGuire WB; Mei G; Miles S; Mittman M; Patil M; Quesenberry CP Jr; Ranatunga D; Rowell S; Sadler M; Sakoda LC; Shapero M; Shen L; Shenoy T; Smethurst D; Somkin CP; Van Den Eeden SK; Walter L; Wan E; Webster T; Whitmer RA; Wong S; Zau C; Zhan Y; Schaefer C; Kwok PY; Risch N;
PubMed abstract

Automated Assay of Telomere Length Measurement and Informatics for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort

Author(s): Lapham K; Kvale MN; Lin J; Connell S; Croen LA; Dispensa BP; Fang L; Hesselson S; Hoffmann TJ; Iribarren C; Jorgenson E; Kushi LH; Ludwig D; Matsuguchi T; McGuire WB; Miles S; Quesenberry CP Jr; Rowell S; Sadler M; Sakoda LC; Smethurst D; Somkin CP; Van Den Eeden SK; Walter L; Whitmer RA; Kwok PY; Risch N; Schaefer C; Blackburn EH;
PubMed abstract

Characterizing Race/Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort

Author(s): Banda Y; Kvale MN; Hoffmann TJ; Hesselson SE; Ranatunga D; Tang H; Sabatti C; Croen LA; Dispensa BP; Henderson M; Iribarren C; Jorgenson E; Kushi LH; Ludwig D; Olberg D; Quesenberry CP Jr; Rowell S; Sadler M; Sakoda LC; Sciortino S; Shen L; Smethurst D; Somkin CP; Van Den Eeden SK; Walter L; Whitmer RA; Kwok PY; Schaefer C; Risch N;
PubMed abstract

Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptoms Among Children Enrolled in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED)

Author(s): Wiggins LD; Levy SE; Daniels J; Schieve L; Croen LA; DiGuiseppi C; Blaskey L; Giarelli E; Lee LC; Pinto-Martin J; Reynolds A; Rice C; Rosenberg CR; Thompson P; Yeargin-Allsopp M; Young L; Schendel D
PubMed abstract

Immune mediated conditions in autism spectrum disorders

Author(s): Zerbo O; Leong A; Barcellos L; Bernal P; Fireman B; Croen LA
PubMed abstract

Paternal sperm DNA methylation associated with early signs of autism risk in an autism-enriched cohort

Author(s): Feinberg JI; Bakulski KM; Jaffe AE; Tryggvadottir R; Brown SC; Goldman LR; Croen LA; Hertz-Picciotto I; Newschaffer CJ; Daniele Fallin M; Feinberg AP
PubMed abstract

Prenatal and Neonatal Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Levels and Autism Spectrum Disorders

Author(s): Yau VM; Lutsky M; Yoshida CK; Lasley B; Kharrazi M; Windham G; Gee N; Croen LA
PubMed abstract

Increased female autosomal burden of rare copy number variants in human populations and in autism families

Author(s): Desachy G; Croen LA; Torres AR; Kharrazi M; Delorenze GN; Windham GC; Yoshida CK; Weiss LA
PubMed abstract

Familial Recurrence of Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evaluating Genetic and Environmental Contributions

Author(s): Risch N; Hoffmann TJ; Anderson M; Croen LA; Grether JK; Windham GC
PubMed abstract

Prenatal and neonatal peripheral blood mercury levels and autism spectrum disorders

Author(s): Yau VM; Green PG; Alaimo CP; Yoshida CK; Lutsky M; Windham GC; Delorenze G; Kharrazi M; Grether JK; Croen LA
PubMed abstract

Evidence of Reproductive Stoppage in Families With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Large, Population-Based Cohort Study

Author(s): Hoffmann TJ; Windham GC; Anderson M; Croen LA; Grether JK; Risch N
PubMed abstract

Prenatal and perinatal risk factors in a twin study of autism spectrum disorders

Author(s): Froehlich-Santino W; Londono Tobon A; Cleveland S; Torres A; Phillips J; Cohen B; Torigoe T; Miller J; Fedele A; Collins J; Smith K; Lotspeich L; Croen LA; Ozonoff S; Lajonchere C; Grether JK; O'Hara R; Hallmayer J
PubMed abstract

Neonatal cytokines and chemokines and risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder: the Early Markers for Autism (EMA) study: a case-control study

Author(s): Zerbo O; Yoshida C; Grether JK; Van de Water J; Ashwood P; Delorenze GN; Hansen RL; Kharrazi M; Croen LA
PubMed abstract

Determining Source Strength of Semivolatile Organic Compounds using Measured Concentrations in Indoor Dust

Author(s): Shin HM; McKone TE; Nishioka MG; Fallin MD; Croen LA; Hertz-Picciotto I; Newschaffer CJ; Bennett DH
PubMed abstract

Adaptation of the 'ten questions' to screen for autism and other neuro-developmental disorders in Uganda

Author(s): Kakooza-Mwesige A; Ssebyala K; Karamagi C; Kiguli S; Smith K; Anderson MC; Croen LA; Trevathan E; Hansen R; Smith D; Grether JK
PubMed abstract

Prevalence and Neonatal Factors Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Preterm Infants

Author(s): Kuzniewicz MW; Wi S; Qian Y; Walsh EM; Armstrong MA; Croen LA
PubMed abstract

Maternal Infection During Pregnancy and Autism Spectrum Disorders

Author(s): Zerbo O; Qian Y; Yoshida C; Grether JK; Van de Water J; Croen LA
PubMed abstract

A genome-wide survey of transgenerational genetic effects in autism

Author(s): Tsang KM; Croen LA; Torres AR; Kharrazi M; Delorenze GN; Windham GC; Yoshida CK; Zerbo O; Weiss LA
PubMed abstract

Head Circumferences in Twins With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorders

Author(s): Froehlich W; Cleveland S; Torres A; Phillips J; Cohen B; Torigoe T; Miller J; Fedele A; Collins J; Smith K; Lotspeich L; Croen LA; Ozonoff S; Lajonchere C; Grether JK; Hallmayer J
PubMed abstract

Sequencing of the IL6 gene in a case--control study of cerebral palsy in children

Author(s): Khankhanian P; Baranzini SE; Johnson BA; Madireddy L; Nickles D; Croen LA; Wu YW
PubMed abstract

Is Infertility Associated with Childhood Autism?

Author(s): Grether JK; Qian Y; Croughan MS; Wu YW; Schembri M; Camarano L; Croen LA
PubMed abstract

Use of Birth Certificates to Examine Maternal Occupational Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorders in Offspring

Author(s): Windham GC; Sumner A; Li SX; Anderson M; Katz E; Croen LA; Grether JK
PubMed abstract

Genetic risk factors for perinatal arterial ischemic stroke

Author(s): Gelfand AA; Croen LA; Torres AR; Wu YW
PubMed abstract

The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED): A Multisite Epidemiologic Study of Autism by the Centers for Autism and Developmental Disabilities Research and Epidemiology (CADDRE) Network

Author(s): Schendel DE; Diguiseppi C; Croen LA; Fallin MD; Reed PL; Schieve LA; Wiggins LD; Daniels J; Grether J; Levy SE; Miller L; Newschaffer C; Pinto-Martin J; Robinson C; Windham GC; Alexander A; Aylsworth AS; Bernal P; Bonner JD; Blaskey L; Bradley C; Collins J; Ferretti CJ; Farzadegan H; Giarelli E; Harvey M; Hepburn S; Herr M; Kaparich K; Landa R; Lee LC; Levenseller B; Meyerer S; Rahbar MH; Ratchford A; Reynolds A; Rosenberg S; Rusyniak J; Shapira SK; Smith K; Souders M; Thompson PA; Young L; Yeargin-Allsopp M
PubMed abstract

Infant siblings and the investigation of autism risk factors

Author(s): Newschaffer CJ; Croen LA; Fallin MD; Hertz-Picciotto I; Nguyen DV; Lee NL; Berry CA; Farzadegan H; Hess HN; Landa RJ; Levy SE; Massolo ML; Meyerer SC; Mohammed SM; Oliver MC; Ozonoff S; Pandey J; Schroeder A; Shedd-Wise KM
PubMed abstract

Prenatal exposure to beta2-adrenergic receptor agonists and risk of autism spectrum disorders

Author(s): Croen LA; Connors SL; Matevia M; Qian Y; Newschaffer C; Zimmerman AW
PubMed abstract

Candidate Genes and Risk for Cerebral Palsy: a Population-Based Study

Author(s): Wu YW; Croen LA; Vanderwerf A; Gelfand AA; Torres AR
PubMed abstract

Antidepressant Use During Pregnancy and Childhood Autism Spectrum Disorders

Author(s): Croen LA; Grether JK; Yoshida CK; Odouli R; Hendrick V
PubMed abstract

Genetic Heritability and Shared Environmental Factors Among Twin Pairs With Autism

Author(s): Hallmayer J; Cleveland S; Torres A; Phillips J; Cohen B; Torigoe T; Miller J; Fedele A; Collins J; Smith K; Lotspeich L; Croen LA; Ozonoff S; Lajonchere C; Grether JK; Risch N
PubMed abstract

Birth Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in the San Francisco Bay Area by Demographic and Ascertainment Source Characteristics

Author(s): Windham GC; Anderson MC; Croen LA; Smith KS; Collins J; Grether JK
PubMed abstract

Epidemiology of peripartum cardiomyopathy: incidence, predictors, and outcomes

Author(s): Gunderson EP; Croen LA; Chiang V; Yoshida CK; Walton D; Go AS
PubMed abstract

Increased midgestational IFN-gamma, IL-4 and IL-5 in women bearing a child with autism: A case-control study

Author(s): Goines PE; Croen LA; Braunschweig D; Yoshida CK; Grether J; Hansen R; Kharrazi M; Ashwood P; Van de Water J
PubMed abstract

Jaundice-autism link unconvincing

Author(s): Newman TB; Croen LA
PubMed abstract

Neonatally measured immunoglobulins and risk of autism

Author(s): Grether JK; Croen LA; Anderson MC; Nelson KB; Yolken RH
PubMed abstract

Prenatal and infant exposure to thimerosal from vaccines and immunoglobulins and risk of autism

Author(s): Price CS; Thompson WW; Goodson B; Weintraub ES; Croen LA; Hinrichsen VL; Marcy M; Robertson A; Eriksen E; Lewis E; Bernal P; Shay D; Davis RL; DeStefano F
PubMed abstract

Antenatal ultrasound and risk of autism spectrum disorders

Author(s): Grether JK; Li SX; Yoshida CK; Croen LA
PubMed abstract

Risk of autism and increasing maternal and paternal age in a large north American population

Author(s): Grether JK; Anderson MC; Croen LA; Smith D; Windham GC
PubMed abstract

Interleukin-6 genotype and risk for cerebral palsy in term and near-term infants

Author(s): Wu YW; Croen LA; Torres AR; Van De Water J; Grether JK; Hsu NN
PubMed abstract

Investigation of shifts in autism reporting in the California Department of Developmental Services

Author(s): Grether JK; Rosen NJ; Smith KS; Croen LA
PubMed abstract

Mothers of children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: health conditions and medical care utilization in periods before and after birth of the child

Author(s): Ray GT; Croen LA; Habel LA
PubMed abstract

Decreased transforming growth factor beta1 in autism: a potential link between immune dysregulation and impairment in clinical behavioral outcomes

Author(s): Ashwood P; Enstrom A; Krakowiak P; Hertz-Picciotto I; Hansen RL; Croen LA; Ozonoff S; Pessah IN; Van de Water J
PubMed abstract

Maternal mid-pregnancy autoantibodies to fetal brain protein: the early markers for autism study

Author(s): Croen LA; Braunschweig D; Haapanen L; Yoshida CK; Fireman B; Grether JK; Kharrazi M; Hansen RL; Ashwood P; Van de Water J
PubMed abstract

Maternal Rh D status, anti-D immune globulin exposure during pregnancy, and risk of autism spectrum disorders

Author(s): Croen LA; Matevia M; Yoshida CK; Grether JK
PubMed abstract

Sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorders, developmental delays, and typical development: a population-based study

Author(s): Krakowiak P; Goodlin-Jones B; Hertz-Picciotto I; Croen LA; Hansen RL
PubMed abstract

Peripheral blood leukocyte production of BDNF following mitogen stimulation in early onset and regressive autism

Author(s): Enstrom A; Onore C; Tarver A; Hertz-Picciotto I; Hansen R; Croen L; Van de Water J; Ashwood P
PubMed abstract

Detection of IL-17 and IL-23 in plasma samples of children with autism

Author(s): Enstrom A; Onore C; Hertz-Piccioto I; Hansen R; Croen L; Van de Water J; Ashwood P
PubMed abstract

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and autism: maternal and infant peripheral blood levels in the Early Markers for Autism (EMA) Study

Author(s): Croen LA; Goines P; Braunschweig D; Yolken R; Yoshida CK; Grether JK; Fireman B; Kharrazi M; Hansen RL; Van de Water J
PubMed abstract

Autism: maternally derived antibodies specific for fetal brain proteins

Author(s): Braunschweig D; Ashwood P; Krakowiak P; Hertz-Picciotto I; Hansen R; Croen LA; Pessah IN; Van de Water J
PubMed abstract

Brief report: plasma leptin levels are elevated in autism: association with early onset phenotype?

Author(s): Ashwood P; Kwong C; Hansen R; Hertz-Picciotto I; Croen L; Krakowiak P; Walker W; Pessah IN; Van de Water J
PubMed abstract

Gene expression changes in children with autism

Author(s): Gregg JP; Lit L; Baron CA; Hertz-Picciotto I; Walker W; Davis RA; Croen LA; Ozonoff S; Hansen R; Pessah IN; Sharp FR
PubMed abstract

Regression in autism: prevalence and associated factors in the CHARGE Study

Author(s): Hansen RL; Ozonoff S; Krakowiak P; Angkustsiri K; Jones C; Deprey LJ; Le DN; Croen LA; Hertz-Picciotto I
PubMed abstract

Meta-analysis of antioxidant intake and the risk of esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma

Author(s): Kubo A; Corley DA
PubMed abstract

Maternal and paternal age and risk of autism spectrum disorders

Author(s): Croen LA; Najjar DV; Fireman B; Grether JK
PubMed abstract

Infection in the first 2 years of life and autism spectrum disorders

Author(s): Rosen NJ; Yoshida CK; Croen LA
PubMed abstract

The epidemiology of autism spectrum disorders

Author(s): Newschaffer CJ; Croen LA; Daniels J; Giarelli E; Grether JK; Levy SE; Mandell DS; Miller LA; Pinto-Martin J; Reaven J; Reynolds AM; Rice CE; Schendel D; Windham GC
PubMed abstract

A comparison of health care utilization and costs of children with and without autism spectrum disorders in a large group-model health plan

Author(s): Croen LA; Najjar DV; Ray GT; Lotspeich L; Bernal P
PubMed abstract

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children: excess costs before and after initial diagnosis and treatment cost differences by ethnicity

Author(s): Ray GT; Levine P; Croen LA; Bokhari FA; Hu TW; Habel LA
PubMed abstract

Potential association between infertility and spinal neural tube defects in offspring

Author(s): Wu YW; Croen LA; Henning L; Najjar DV; Schembri M; Croughan MS
PubMed abstract

Autism spectrum disorders in relation to distribution of hazardous air pollutants in the san francisco bay area

Author(s): Windham GC; Zhang L; Gunier R; Croen LA; Grether JK
PubMed abstract

Cerebral palsy in a term population: risk factors and neuroimaging findings

Author(s): Wu YW; Croen LA; Shah SJ; Newman TB; Najjar DV
PubMed abstract

The CHARGE study: an epidemiologic investigation of genetic and environmental factors contributing to autism

Author(s): Hertz-Picciotto I; Croen LA; Hansen R; Jones CR; van de Water J; Pessah IN
PubMed abstract

Congenital anomalies associated with autism spectrum disorders

Author(s): Wier ML; Yoshida CK; Odouli R; Grether JK; Croen LA
PubMed abstract

Predictors of outcome in perinatal arterial stroke: a population-based study

Author(s): Lee J; Croen LA; Lindan C; Nash KB; Yoshida CK; Ferriero DM; Barkovich AJ; Wu YW
PubMed abstract

Trends in severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia rates between 1994 and 2002

Author(s): Smith VC; Zupancic JA; McCormick MC; Croen LA; Greene J; Escobar GJ; Richardson DK
PubMed abstract

Maternal and infant characteristics associated with perinatal arterial stroke in the infant

Author(s): Lee J; Croen LA; Backstrand KH; Yoshida CK; Henning LH; Lindan C; Ferriero DM; Fullerton HJ; Barkovich AJ; Wu YW
PubMed abstract

Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and risk of autism spectrum disorders

Author(s): Croen LA; Yoshida CK; Odouli R; Newman TB
PubMed abstract

Maternal autoimmune diseases, asthma and allergies, and childhood autism spectrum disorders: a case-control study

Author(s): Croen LA; Grether JK; Yoshida CK; Odouli R; Van de Water J
PubMed abstract

Identifying environmental contributions to autism: provocative clues and false leads

Author(s): Lawler CP; Croen LA; Grether JK; van de Water J
PubMed abstract

Perinatal stroke in children with motor impairment: a population-based study

Author(s): Wu YW; March WM; Croen LA; Grether JK; Escobar GJ; Newman TB
PubMed abstract

Rehospitalization in the first year of life among infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia

Author(s): Smith VC; Zupancic JA; McCormick MC; Croen LA; Greene J; Escobar GJ; Richardson DK
PubMed abstract

Chorioamnionitis and cerebral palsy in term and near-term infants

Author(s): Wu YW; Escobar GJ; Grether JK; Croen LA; Greene JD; Newman TB
PubMed abstract

On the twin risk in autism

Author(s): Hallmayer J; Glasson EJ; Bower C; Petterson B; Croen L; Grether J; Risch N
PubMed abstract

The changing prevalence of autism in California

Author(s): Croen LA; Grether JK; Hoogstrate J; Selvin S
PubMed abstract

Descriptive epidemiology of autism in a California population: who is at risk?

Author(s): Croen LA; Grether JK; Selvin S
PubMed abstract

Apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein E genotypes and sporadic holoprosencephaly

Author(s): Croen LA; Shaw GM; Barber RC; Baker MM; Finnell RH; Lammer EJ
PubMed abstract

Congenital abnormalities among children with cerebral palsy: More evidence for prenatal antecedents

Author(s): Croen LA; Grether JK; Curry CJ; Nelson KB
PubMed abstract

The epidemiology of mental retardation of unknown cause

Author(s): Croen LA; Grether JK; Selvin S
PubMed abstract

Neuropeptides and neurotrophins in neonatal blood of children with autism or mental retardation

Author(s): Nelson KB; Grether JK; Croen LA; Dambrosia JM; Dickens BF; Jelliffe LL; Hansen RL; Phillips TM
PubMed abstract

Maternal exposure to nitrate from drinking water and diet and risk for neural tube defects

Author(s): Croen LA; Todoroff K; Shaw GM
PubMed abstract