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Gabriel J. Escobar, MD

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Kaiser Permanente Division of Research
2000 Broadway
Oakland, CA 94612

(510) 891-5929 (phone)
gabriel.escobar@kp.org
Kaiser Permanente Researcher Profiles


Gabriel J. Escobar, MD, is a research scientist at the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Division of Research; director of the Division of Research Systems Research Initiative (a research program focusing on adult hospital processes and outcomes, informatics, and program evaluation); and Regional Director for Hospital Operations Research for Kaiser Permanente Northern California, in which capacity he works to improve Kaiser Permanente's internal reporting and quality measurement capabilities. Dr. Escobar received his medical degree from Yale University School of Medicine; completed his pediatrics residency at University of California, San Francisco; and was a Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholar at Stanford University School of Medicine.  He is board certified in Clinical Informatics.

Dr. Escobar's research interests include risk adjustment, predictive modeling, severity-of-illness scoring, the use of comprehensive inpatient and outpatient electronic medical records for health services research, and the use of real-time decision support tools that are embedded in the electronic record. Between 1991 and 2001, Dr. Escobar developed a research program in neonatology for Kaiser Permanente Northern California. In 2001, he began development of his current research program, and in 2009 he turned over the neonatology research program to Michael Kuzniewicz, MD, at the Division of Research so that he could focus on the work of the Systems Research Initiative. Dr. Escobar also worked as a pediatric hospitalist at the Kaiser Permanente Walnut Creek, Antioch, and Oakland Medical Centers between 1984 and 2016.

Current Position(s):

  • Research Scientist III, Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California
  • Regional Director for Hospital Operations Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California

Section Affiliations:

Primary Research Interests:

  • Health services research
  • Risk adjustment
  • Severity-of-illness scoring
  • Predictive modeling
  • Informatics
  • Electronic decision support (general)
  • Implementation of electronic decision support in EMRs
  • Natural language processing
  • Guidelines development
  • Critical care research
  • Quantitative evaluation of program and guideline implementation
  • Human error

Related Website(s):

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Preterm Infants: Six Seasons; Experience in an Integrated Health Care Delivery System

We will study the impact of the change in the American Academy of Pediatrics's palivizumab recommendations in a large cohort of infants (300,000) of all gestations over a 7-year period (2010- 2016). We will quantify and characterize the following over this period: 1) occurrence of bronchiolitis in children 24 months of age; 2) testing patterns for Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV); 3) RSV immunoprophylaxis utilization; and 4) health care utilization among infants and children with RSV infection, with particular emphasis on hospitalization and use of intensive care.
Investigator: Escobar, Gabriel
Funder: AstraZeneca

Default Palliative Care Consultation for Seriously Ill Hospitalized Patients

This project aims to test the impact of changing the default mode for palliative care consultation in hospitalized patients from an "opt in" to an "opt out" model. This will be tested in 10-12 Ascension Health hospitals using a stepped wedge design. No KP patients are involved, and Dr. Escobar's primary role will be to assist in the UH2 (planning phase), which has the following aims: develop electronic medical record algorithms to identify patients meeting palliative care triggers; validate data capture of all proposed outcomes in a sample of de-identified patients; validate methods for tracking adherence to electronically generated palliative care orders; establish mechanisms and materials for notifying patients and providers about the research; complete regulatory compliance components, including defining strategy for IRB approval, trial registry, and DSMB assembly.
Investigator: Escobar, Gabriel
Funder: National Institute of Aging

Advance Alert Monitor Operations

The Systems Research Initiative will provide project management and operational consultation for the spread of the Advance Alert Monitor within KPNC between 10/1/16 and 9/30/18. During this time Division of Research will complete the following tasks: continue the support of AAM initiation in all KPNC hospitals; troubleshoot transition from Q6 hours to Q1 hours alarm firing; provide parameters, guidelines, variables, and oversight for quality control algorithms; recalibrate the AAM model twice (once during first year and once during second year); develop documentation for the AAM algorithm and its components; develop documentation for model recalibration; collaborate with KPIT to develop documentation of the Java application; collaborate to hand off operation of AAM to appropriate entities TBD; manual chart abstraction for evaluation of adherence to Life Care Planning program; and preliminary and final outcomes analysis, including submission of manuscripts for publication.
Investigator: Escobar, Gabriel
Funder: Kaiser Foundation Health Plan

Development, Reevaluation and Implementation of Outcome/Efficiency Measures

This project aims to test the feasibility of employing clinical data from comprehensive electronic medical record systems (such as the Epic EMR) for developing, testing and validating potential publicly-reported quality, process, outcomes and risk-adjustment measures on hospitalized adult patients.
Investigator: Escobar, Gabriel
Funder: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services

Early Detection, Prevention and Mitigation of Impending Physiologic Deterioration in Hospitalized Patients Outside the ICU: A Pilot Project

An electronic alert system targeting adult patients in 3 hospital units (ward, telemetry, and transitional care unit) will be deployed at two KPNC hospitals (South San Francisco and Sacramento). The alert system provides early (12 hours) warning about a patient's impending risk of deterioration as well as global risk around the time of admission to the hospital. It will be coupled with changes in clinician workflow (e.g., use of an automated checklist for patients who have triggered an alert) as well as frequent feedback on hospital adverse events from the DOR. To evaluate the pilot intervention, a difference in differences analysis will be conducted in which adverse outcome rates in the two pilot sites will be compared against the remaining 19 KPNC hospitals. Data from the pilot will be used to estimate duration of a stepped wedge cluster randomized trial involving all remaining KPNC hospitals.
Investigator: Escobar, Gabriel
Funder: Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation

CAREER: Managing Patient Flows with Congestion Effects

This project will employ simulation methods to analyze emergency department, hospital, and ICU data, including physiologic markers of severity of illness, with a view to identifying specific patient flow, hospital and ED occupancy states, and processes of care (e.g., early goal-directed therapy for sepsis) associated with improved patient outcomes (e.g., death, unplanned transfer to intensive care) as well as improved system states (e.g., absence of ED overflow conditions, absence of census-driven discharges from hospital units).
Investigator: Escobar, Gabriel
Funder: National Science Foundation

Development of Predictive Models for Recurrent Clostridium Difficile Infection (rCDI)

This project will examine predictors of and outcomes after recurrent Clostridium difficile infection in adults. Predictors will include age, sex, diagnoses, severity of illness, hospital length of stay, and antibiotic exposure. Outcomes will include hospital utilization, particularly use of intensive care, mortality, and other major morbidity (e.g., major bowel surgery). The initial cohort will consist of adults 18 years of age or older who (a) were members on 1/1/02, (b) did not have any C difficile infection between 9/1/01 and 12/31/01, and (c) developed C difficile infection on or after 1/1/02. These patients will then be divided into those that did and did not have a recurrent (2nd) C difficile infection.
Investigator: Escobar, Gabriel
Funder: Merck and Co., Inc.

Postpartum Hemorrhage and Anemia: Epidemiologic and Cost-Effectiveness Analyses

This project, a collaboration with Dr. Alex Butwick at Stanford University, aims to investigate the prevalence and incidence of early postpartum anemia in patients following Cesarean delivery prior to hospital discharge over a 5-year period. As part of this project, we will collect hemoglobin values prior to Cesarean delivery and post-Cesarean hemoglobin values until hospital discharge. We also will collect demographic, obstetric and surgical data. Multivariate logistic regression will be used to determine important variables independently associated with postpartum anemia.
Investigator: Escobar, Gabriel
Funder: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

Early detection, prevention, and mitigation of critical illness outside intensive care settings

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Dellinger RP
PubMed abstract

Piloting electronic medical record-based early detection of inpatient deterioration in community hospitals

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Turk BJ; Ragins A; Ha J; Hoberman B; LeVine SM; Ballesca MA; Liu V; Kipnis P
PubMed abstract

Nonelective Rehospitalizations and Postdischarge Mortality; Predictive Models Suitable for Use in Real Time

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Ragins A; Scheirer P; Liu V; Robles J; Kipnis P
PubMed abstract

Risk-adjusting hospital inpatient mortality using automated inpatient, outpatient, and laboratory databases

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Greene JD; Scheirer P; Gardner MN; Draper D; Kipnis P
PubMed abstract

Identifying Distinct Subgroups of ICU Patients: A Machine Learning Approach

Author(s): Vranas KC; Jopling JK; Sweeney TE; Ramsey MC; Milstein AS; Slatore CG; Escobar GJ; Liu VX
PubMed abstract

Reply to the Timing of Early Antibiotics and Hospital Mortality in Sepsis - Playing Devil's Advocate

Author(s): Liu V; Fielding-Singh V; Iwashyna TJ; Bhattacharya J; Escobar G
PubMed abstract

The Timing of Early Antibiotics and Hospital Mortality in Sepsis

Author(s): Liu VX; Fielding-Singh V; Greene JD; Baker JM; Iwashyna TJ; Bhattacharya J; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

A Quantitative, Risk-Based Approach to the Management of Neonatal Early-Onset Sepsis

Author(s): Kuzniewicz MW; Puopolo KM; Fischer A; Walsh EM; Li S; Newman TB; Kipnis P; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Evaluation Following Staggered Implementation of the "Rethinking Critical Care" ICU Care Bundle in a Multicenter Community Setting

Author(s): Liu V; Herbert D; Foss-Durant A; Marelich GP; Patel A; Whippy A; Turk BJ; Ragins AI; Kipnis P; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Early detection of critical illness outside the intensive care unit: Clarifying treatment plans and honoring goals of care using a supportive care team

Author(s): Granich R; Sutton Z; Kim YS; Anderson M; Wood H; Scharf JE; Ragins A; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Data that drive: Closing the loop in the learning hospital system

Author(s): Liu VX; Morehouse JW; Baker JM; Greene JD; Kipnis P; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Early detection, prevention, and mitigation of critical illness outside intensive care settings

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Dellinger RP
PubMed abstract

Piloting electronic medical record-based early detection of inpatient deterioration in community hospitals

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Turk BJ; Ragins A; Ha J; Hoberman B; LeVine SM; Ballesca MA; Liu V; Kipnis P
PubMed abstract

Implementation of a multicenter performance improvement program for early detection and treatment of severe sepsis in general medical-surgical wards

Author(s): Schorr C; Odden A; Evans L; Escobar GJ; Gandhi S; Townsend S; Levy M
PubMed abstract

Development and Validation of an Electronic Medical Record-Based Alert Score for Detection of Inpatient Deterioration Outside the ICU

Author(s): Kipnis P; Turk BJ; Wulf DA; Carlos LaGuardia J; XLiu V; Churpek MM; Romero-Brufau S; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Patterns and predictors of severe postpartum anemia after Cesarean section

Author(s): Butwick AJ; Walsh EM; Kuzniewicz M; Li SX; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Predicting red blood cell transfusion in hospitalized patients: role of hemoglobin level, comorbidities, and illness severity

Author(s): Roubinian NH; Murphy EL; Swain BE; Gardner MN; Liu V; Escobar GJ; NHLBI Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III (REDS-III); Northern California Kaiser Permanente DOR Systems Research Initiative
PubMed abstract

Hospital Deaths in Patients With Sepsis From 2 Independent Cohorts

Author(s): Liu V; Escobar GJ; Greene JD; Soule J; Whippy A; Angus DC; Iwashyna TJ
PubMed abstract

Big data in health care: using analytics to identify and manage high-risk and high-cost patients

Author(s): Bates DW; Saria S; Ohno-Machado L; Shah A; Escobar G
PubMed abstract

Rationale and Design of the Randomized Evaluation of Default Access to Palliative Services (REDAPS) Trial

Author(s): Courtright KR; Madden V; Gabler NB; Cooney E; Small DS; Troxel A; Casarett D; Ersek M; Cassel JB; Nicholas LH; Escobar G; Hill SH; O'Brien D; Vogel M; Halpern SD
PubMed abstract

Association Among ICU Congestion, ICU Admission Decision, and Patient Outcomes

Author(s): Kim SH; Chan CW; Olivares M; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Development and Implementation of an Early-Onset Sepsis Calculator to Guide Antibiotic Management in Late Preterm and Term Neonates

Author(s): Kuzniewicz MW1; Walsh EM; Li S; Fischer A; Escobar GJ;
PubMed abstract

Consensus Statement on Electronic Health Predictive Analytics: A Guiding Framework to Address Challenges

Author(s): Amarasingham R; Audet AM; Bates DW; Glenn Cohen I; Entwistle M; Escobar GJ; Liu V; Etheredge L; Lo B; Ohno-Machado L; Ram S; Saria S; Schilling LM; Shahi A; Stewart WF; Steyerberg EW; Xie B
PubMed abstract

Multicenter Implementation of a Treatment Bundle for Sepsis Patients with Intermediate Lactate Values

Author(s): Liu VX; Morehouse JW; Marelich GP; Soule J; Russell T; Skeath M; Adams C; Escobar GJ; Whippy A
PubMed abstract

Nonelective Rehospitalizations and Postdischarge Mortality; Predictive Models Suitable for Use in Real Time

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Ragins A; Scheirer P; Liu V; Robles J; Kipnis P
PubMed abstract

Why the C-statistic is not informative to evaluate early warning scores and what metrics to use

Author(s): Romero-Brufau S; Huddleston JM; Escobar GJ; Liebow M
PubMed abstract

Lack of improved outcomes with increased use of targeted temperature management following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A multicenter retrospective cohort study

Author(s): Mark DG; Vinson DR; Hung YY; Anderson ES; Escobar GJ; Carr BG; Abella BS; Ballard DW
PubMed abstract

Trends in red blood cell transfusion and 30-day mortality among hospitalized patients

Author(s): Roubinian NH; Escobar GJ; Liu V; Swain BE; Gardner MN; Kipnis P; Triulzi DJ; Gottschall JL; Wu Y; Carson JL; Kleinman SH; Murphy EL; NHLBI Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study (REDS-III)
PubMed abstract

Maternal Acculturation and the Prenatal Care Experience

Author(s): Fuentes-Afflick E; Odouli R; Escobar GJ; Stewart AL; Hessol NA
PubMed abstract

Combining Immature and Total Neutrophil Counts to Predict Early Onset Sepsis in Term and Late Preterm Newborns: Use of the I/T2

Author(s): Newman TB; Draper D; Puopolo KM; Wi S; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Decreased Red Blood Cell Use and Mortality in Hospitalized Patients

Author(s): Roubinian NH; Escobar GJ; Liu V; Gardner MN; Carson JL; Kleinman SH; Murphy EL; NHLBI Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study (REDS-III)
PubMed abstract

Hospital readmission and healthcare utilization following sepsis in community settings

Author(s): Liu V; Lei X; Prescott HC; Kipnis P; Iwashyna TJ; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Increased one-year health care utilization in survivors of severe sepsis

Author(s): Prescott HC; Langa KM; Liu V; Escobar GJ; Iwashyna TJ
PubMed abstract

Accuracy of hospital standardized mortality rates: effects of model calibration

Author(s): Kipnis P; Liu V; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Promotion of Lung Health: NHLBI Workshop on the Primary Prevention of Chronic Lung Diseases

Author(s): Camargo CA; Budinger GR; Escobar GJ; Hansel NN; Hanson CK; Huffnagle GB; Buist AS
PubMed abstract

An electronic order set for acute myocardial infarction is associated with improved patient outcomes through better adherence to clinical practice guidelines

Author(s): Ballesca MA; LaGuardia JC; Lee PC; Hwang AM; Park DK; Gardner MN; Turk BJ; Kipnis P; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Stratification of Risk of Early-Onset Sepsis in Newborns >=34 Weeks' Gestation

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Puopolo KM; Wi S; Turk BJ; Kuzniewicz MW; Walsh EM; Newman TB; Zupancic J; Lieberman E; Draper D
PubMed abstract

Hospital readmissions and emergency department visits in moderate preterm, late preterm, and early term infants

Author(s): Kuzniewicz MW; Parker SJ; Schnake-Mahl A; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Respiratory syncytial virus infection is linked to recurrent wheezing in healthy premature infants

Author(s): Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Fluid Volume, Lactate Values, and Mortality in Sepsis Patients with Intermediate Lactate Values

Author(s): Liu V; Morehouse JW; Soule J; Whippy A; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Adherence to Immunoprophylaxis Regimens for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Insured and Medicaid Populations

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Gebretsadik T; Carroll K; Li SX; Walsh EM; Wu P; Mitchel E; Sloan C; Hartert T
PubMed abstract

Automated identification of pneumonia in chest radiograph reports in critically ill patients

Author(s): Liu V; Clark MP; Mendoza M; Saket R; Gardner MN; Turk BJ; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Persistent recurring wheezing in the fifth year of life after laboratory-confirmed, medically attended respiratory syncytial virus infection in infancy

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Masaquel AS; Li SX; Walsh EM; Kipnis P
PubMed abstract

Risk of childhood asthma following infant bronchiolitis during the respiratory syncytial virus season

Author(s): James KM; Gebretsadik T; Escobar GJ; Wu P; Carroll KN; Li SX; Walsh EM; Mitchel EF; Sloan C; Hartert TV
PubMed abstract

Risk-adjusting Hospital Mortality Using a Comprehensive Electronic Record in an Integrated Health Care Delivery System

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Gardner MN; Greene JD; Draper D; Kipnis P
PubMed abstract

Early-onset sepsis: a predictive model based on maternal risk factors

Author(s): Puopolo KM; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Addition of time-dependent covariates to a survival model significantly improved predictions for daily risk of hospital death

Author(s): Wong J; Taljaard M; Forster AJ; Escobar GJ; van Walraven C
PubMed abstract

An electronic simplified acute physiology score-based risk adjustment score for critical illness in an integrated healthcare system*

Author(s): Liu V; Turk BJ; Ragins AI; Kipnis P; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Adverse outcomes associated with delayed intensive care unit transfers in an integrated healthcare system

Author(s): Liu V; Kipnis P; Rizk NW; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Risk factors for unplanned transfer to intensive care within 24 hours of admission from the emergency department in an integrated healthcare system

Author(s): Delgado MK; Liu V; Pines JM; Kipnis P; Gardner MN; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

The association between sepsis and potential medical injury among hospitalized patients

Author(s): Liu V; Turk BJ; Rizk NW; Kipnis P; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Underimmunization at discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit

Author(s): Navar-Boggan AM; Halsey NA; Escobar GJ; Golden WC; Klein NP
PubMed abstract

The impact of maternal characteristics on the moderately premature infant: an antenatal maternal transport clinical prediction rule

Author(s): Dukhovny D; Dukhovny S; Pursley DM; Escobar GJ; McCormick MC; Mao WY; Zupancic JA
PubMed abstract

Racial and ethnic differences in the prevalence of placenta previa

Author(s): Kim LH; Caughey AB; Laguardia JC; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Interpersonal Processes of Care and Cesarean Delivery in Two Health Care Settings

Author(s): Hessol NA; Odouli R; Escobar GJ; Stewart AL; Fuentes-Afflick E
PubMed abstract

Frequency, duration and predictors of bronchiolitis episodes of care among infants [greater than or equal to]32 weeks gestation in a large integrated healthcare system: a retrospective cohort study

Author(s): Ragins AI; Li SX; Kipnis P; Masaquel A; Escobar GJ; Flaherman VJ
PubMed abstract

Early detection of impending physiologic deterioration among patients who are not in intensive care: Development of predictive models using data from an automated electronic medical record

Author(s): Escobar GJ; LaGuardia JC; Turk BJ; Ragins A; Kipnis P; Draper D
PubMed abstract

Total Serum Bilirubin Exceeding Exchange Transfusion Thresholds in the Setting of Universal Screening

Author(s): Flaherman VJ; Kuzniewicz MW; Escobar GJ; Newman TB
PubMed abstract

Risk of preterm delivery in non-diabetic women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

Author(s): Yamamoto M; Feigenbaum SL; Crites Y; Escobar GJ; Yang J; Ferrara A; Lo JC
PubMed abstract

Estimating the probability of neonatal early-onset infection on the basis of maternal risk factors

Author(s): Puopolo KM; Draper D; Wi S; Newman TB; Zupancic J; Lieberman E; Smith M; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Derivation and validation of a model to predict daily risk of death in hospital

Author(s): Wong J; Taljaard M; Forster AJ; Escobar GJ; van Walraven C
PubMed abstract

Epidemiology of apnea and bradycardia resolution in premature infants

Author(s): Lorch SA; Srinivasan L; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Variation in diagnosis of apnea in moderately preterm infants predicts length of stay

Author(s): Eichenwald EC; Zupancic JA; Mao WY; Richardson DK; McCormick MC; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Respiratory syncytial virus testing during bronchiolitis episodes of care in an integrated health care delivery system: a retrospective cohort study

Author(s): Flaherman V; Li S; Ragins A; Masaquel A; Kipnis P; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Interpreting conjugated bilirubin levels in newborns

Author(s): Davis AR; Rosenthal P; Escobar GJ; Newman TB
PubMed abstract

Interpreting complete blood counts soon after birth in newborns at risk for sepsis

Author(s): Newman TB; Puopolo KM; Wi S; Draper D; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Recurrent wheezing in the third year of life among children born at 32 weeks' gestation or later: relationship to laboratory-confirmed, medically attended infection with respiratory syncytial virus during the first year of life

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Ragins A; Li SX; Prager L; Masaquel AS; Kipnis P
PubMed abstract

Length of stay and imminent discharge probability distributions from multistage models: variation by diagnosis, severity of illness, and hospital

Author(s): Harrison GW; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Premature infants born to adolescent mothers: health care utilization after initial discharge

Author(s): Ray KN; Escobar GJ; Lorch SA
PubMed abstract

Length of stay predictions: improvements through the use of automated laboratory and comorbidity variables

Author(s): Liu V; Kipnis P; Gould MK; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Effect of choice of estimation method on inter-hospital mortality rate comparisons

Author(s): Kipnis P; Escobar GJ; Draper D
PubMed abstract

Maternal and paternal race/ethnicity are both associated with gestational diabetes

Author(s): Caughey AB; Cheng YW; Stotland NE; Washington AE; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Effect of neonatal jaundice and phototherapy on the frequency of first-year outpatient visits

Author(s): Usatin D; Liljestrand P; Kuzniewicz MW; Escobar GJ; Newman TB
PubMed abstract

Risk of fever and sepsis evaluations after routine immunizations in the neonatal intensive care unit

Author(s): Navar-Boggan AM; Halsey NA; Golden WC; Escobar GJ; Massolo M; Klein NP
PubMed abstract

Intra-hospital transfers to a higher level of care: contribution to total hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) mortality and length of stay (LOS)

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Greene JD; Gardner MN; Marelich GP; Quick B; Kipnis P
PubMed abstract

The role of outpatient facilities in explaining variations in risk-adjusted readmission rates between hospitals

Author(s): Lorch SA; Baiocchi M; Silber JH; Even-Shoshan O; Escobar GJ; Small DS
PubMed abstract

Patient-to-nurse ratios and outcomes of moderately preterm infants

Author(s): Profit J; Petersen LA; McCormick MC; Escobar GJ; Coleman-Phox K; Zheng Z; Pietz K; Zupancic JA
PubMed abstract

The Kaiser Permanente inpatient risk adjustment methodology was valid in an external patient population

Author(s): van Walraven C; Escobar GJ; Greene JD; Forster AJ
PubMed abstract

Impact of universal bilirubin screening on severe hyperbilirubinemia and phototherapy use

Author(s): Kuzniewicz MW; Escobar GJ; Newman TB
PubMed abstract

Use of the motor performance checklist to study motor outcomes in 5-year-olds

Author(s): Liljestrand P; Jeremy RJ; Wu YW; Ferriero DM; Escobar GJ; Newman TB
PubMed abstract

Infant functional status: the timing of physiologic maturation of premature infants

Author(s): Bakewell-Sachs S; Medoff-Cooper B; Escobar GJ; Silber JH; Lorch SA
PubMed abstract

Numbers needed to treat with phototherapy according to American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines

Author(s): Newman TB; Kuzniewicz MW; Liljestrand P; Wi S; McCulloch C; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Time to send the preemie home? Additional maturity at discharge and subsequent health care costs and outcomes

Author(s): Silber JH; Lorch SA; Rosenbaum PR; Medoff-Cooper B; Bakewell-Sachs S; Millman A; Mi L; Even-Shoshan O; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Increased risk of adverse neurological development for late preterm infants

Author(s): Petrini JR; Dias T; McCormick MC; Massolo ML; Green NS; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

No association between hyperbilirubinemia and attention-deficit disorder

Author(s): Kuzniewicz M; Escobar GJ; Newman TB
PubMed abstract

Using drink size to talk about drinking during pregnancy: a randomized clinical trial of Early Start Plus

Author(s): Armstrong MA; Kaskutas LA; Witbrodt J; Taillac CJ; Hung YY; Osejo VM; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Risk factors for severe hyperbilirubinemia among infants with borderline bilirubin levels: a nested case-control study

Author(s): Kuzniewicz MW; Escobar GJ; Wi S; Liljestrand P; McCulloch C; Newman TB
PubMed abstract

Factors influencing parental satisfaction with neonatal intensive care among the families of moderately premature infants

Author(s): McCormick MC; Escobar GJ; Zheng Z; Richardson DK
PubMed abstract

Risk adjusting community-acquired pneumonia hospital outcomes using automated databases

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Fireman BH; Palen TE; Gardner MN; Lee JY; Clark MP; Kipnis P
PubMed abstract

Risk-adjusting hospital inpatient mortality using automated inpatient, outpatient, and laboratory databases

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Greene JD; Scheirer P; Gardner MN; Draper D; Kipnis P
PubMed abstract

Risk factors for developing apnea after immunization in the neonatal intensive care unit

Author(s): Klein NP; Massolo ML; Greene J; Dekker CL; Black S; Escobar GJ; Vaccine Safety Datalink
PubMed abstract

Racial differences in the use of respiratory medications in premature infants after discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit

Author(s): Lorch SA; Wade KC; Bakewell-Sachs S; Medoff-Cooper B; Escobar GJ; Silber JH
PubMed abstract

Incorporation of physiological trend and interaction effects in neonatal severity of illness scores: an experiment using a variant of the Richardson score

Author(s): Kuzniewicz M; Draper D; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Five-year neurodevelopmental outcome of neonatal dehydration

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Liljestrand P; Hudes ES; Ferriero DM; Wu YW; Jeremy RJ; Newman TB
PubMed abstract

Pregnancy plasma glucose levels exceeding the American Diabetes Association thresholds, but below the National Diabetes Data Group thresholds for gestational diabetes mellitus, are related to the risk of neonatal macrosomia, hypoglycaemia and hyperbilirubinaemia

Author(s): Ferrara A; Weiss NS; Hedderson MM; Quesenberry CP Jr; Selby JV; Ergas IJ; Peng T; Escobar GJ; Pettitt DJ; Sacks DA
PubMed abstract

Maternal and obstetric complications of pregnancy are associated with increasing gestational age at term

Author(s): Caughey AB; Stotland NE; Washington AE; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Neonatal intensive care unit census influences discharge of moderately preterm infants

Author(s): Profit J; McCormick MC; Escobar GJ; Richardson DK; Zheng Z; Coleman-Phox K; Roberts R; Zupancic JA
PubMed abstract

Using drink size to talk about drinking during pregnancy: Early start plus

Author(s): Witbrodt J; Armstrong MA; Diehl S; Kaskutas LA; Taillac C; Osejo VM; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Increased prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus among women with diagnosed polycystic ovary syndrome: a population-based study

Author(s): Lo JC; Feigenbaum SL; Escobar GJ; Yang J; Crites YM; Ferrara A
PubMed abstract

Unstudied infants: outcomes of moderately premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit

Author(s): Escobar GJ; McCormick MC; Zupancic JA; Coleman-Phox K; Armstrong MA; Greene JD; Eichenwald EC; Richardson DK
PubMed abstract

Outcomes among newborns with total serum bilirubin levels of 25 mg per deciliter or more

Author(s): Newman TB; Liljestrand P; Jeremy RJ; Ferriero DM; Wu YW; Hudes ES; Escobar GJ; Jaundice and Infant Feeding Study Team
PubMed abstract

Short-term outcomes of infants born at 35 and 36 weeks gestation: we need to ask more questions

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Clark RH; Greene JD
PubMed abstract

Place of birth and variations in management of late preterm ('near-term') infants

Author(s): McCormick MC; Escobar GJ; Zheng Z; Richardson DK
PubMed abstract

Moderately premature infants at Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program in California are discharged home earlier than their peers in Massachusetts and the United Kingdom

Author(s): Profit J; Zupancic JA; McCormick MC; Richardson DK; Escobar GJ; Tucker J; Tarnow-Mordi W; Parry G
PubMed abstract

Pre-pregnancy and pregnancy-related factors and the risk of excessive or inadequate gestational weight gain

Author(s): Brawarsky P; Stotland NE; Jackson RA; Fuentes-Afflick E; Escobar GJ; Rubashkin N; Haas JS
PubMed abstract

What have we learned from observational studies on neonatal sepsis?

Author(s): Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Trends in severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia rates between 1994 and 2002

Author(s): Smith VC; Zupancic JA; McCormick MC; Croen LA; Greene J; Escobar GJ; Richardson DK
PubMed abstract

Body mass index, provider advice, and target gestational weight gain

Author(s): Stotland NE; Haas JS; Brawarsky P; Jackson RA; Fuentes-Afflick E; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Prevalence of motor abnormalities among healthy 5-year old children

Author(s): Wu YW; Liljestrand P; Ferriero DM; Hayward J; Jeremy RJ; Escobar GJ; Newman TB
PubMed abstract

Looking for Trouble in All the Right Places: The Legal Implications Associated with 'Electronic Signatures' and High-risk Clinical Situations

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Folck BF; Gardner MN; Ma J; Palmer LI; Liang B; Nozick LK
PubMed abstract

Combining clinical risk factors with serum bilirubin levels to predict hyperbilirubinemia in newborns

Author(s): Newman TB; Liljestrand P; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Rehospitalisation after birth hospitalisation: patterns among infants of all gestations

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Greene JD; Hulac P; Kincannon E; Bischoff K; Gardner MN; Armstrong MA; France EK
PubMed abstract

Prepregnancy health status and the risk of preterm delivery

Author(s): Haas JS; Fuentes-Afflick E; Stewart AL; Jackson RA; Dean ML; Brawarsky P; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Changes in the health status of women during and after pregnancy

Author(s): Haas JS; Jackson RA; Fuentes-Afflick E; Stewart AL; Dean ML; Brawarsky P; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Risk factors and obstetric complications associated with macrosomia

Author(s): Stotland NE; Caughey AB; Breed EM; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Richardson score predicts short-term adverse respiratory outcomes in newborns >/=34 weeks gestation

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Shaheen SM; Breed EM; Botas C; Greene JD; Yoshida CK; Zupancic J; Newman TB
PubMed abstract

Perinatal stroke in children with motor impairment: a population-based study

Author(s): Wu YW; March WM; Croen LA; Grether JK; Escobar GJ; Newman TB
PubMed abstract

Rehospitalization in the first year of life among infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia

Author(s): Smith VC; Zupancic JA; McCormick MC; Croen LA; Greene J; Escobar GJ; Richardson DK
PubMed abstract

Chorioamnionitis and cerebral palsy in term and near-term infants

Author(s): Wu YW; Escobar GJ; Grether JK; Croen LA; Greene JD; Newman TB
PubMed abstract

What is the best measure of maternal complications of term pregnancy: ongoing pregnancies or pregnancies delivered?

Author(s): Caughey AB; Stotland NE; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Clinician support and psychosocial risk factors associated with breastfeeding discontinuation

Author(s): Taveras EM; Capra AM; Braveman PA; Jensvold NG; Escobar GJ; Lieu TA
PubMed abstract

Infants with bilirubin levels of 30 mg/dL or more in a large managed care organization

Author(s): Newman TB; Liljestrand P; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Phototherapy use in jaundiced newborns in a large managed care organization: do clinicians adhere to the guideline?

Author(s): Atkinson LR; Escobar GJ; Takayama JI; Newman TB
PubMed abstract

Perinatal substance abuse intervention in obstetric clinics decreases adverse neonatal outcomes

Author(s): Armstrong MA; Gonzales Osejo V; Lieberman L; Carpenter DM; Pantoja PM; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Effect of the systemic inflammatory response on biochemical markers of neonatal bacterial infection: a fresh look at old confounders

Author(s): Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Jaundice noted in the first 24 hours after birth in a managed care organization

Author(s): Newman TB; Liljestrand P; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Rehospitalization for neonatal dehydration: a nested case-control study

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Gonzales VM; Armstrong MA; Folck BF; Xiong B; Newman TB
PubMed abstract

Early Start: an obstetric clinic-based, perinatal substance abuse intervention program

Author(s): Armstrong MA; Lieberman L; Carpenter DM; Gonzales VM; Usatin MS; Newman L; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

A randomized comparison of home visits and hospital-based group follow-up visits after early postpartum discharge

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Braveman PA; Ackerson L; Odouli R; Coleman-Phox K; Capra AM; Wong C; Lieu TA
PubMed abstract

A critical review of cost reduction in neonatal intensive care. II. Strategies for reduction

Author(s): Richardson DK; Zupancic JA; Escobar GJ; Ogino M; Pursley DM; Mugford M
PubMed abstract

SNAP-II and SNAPPE-II: Simplified newborn illness severity and mortality risk scores

Author(s): Richardson DK; Corcoran JD; Escobar GJ; Lee SK
PubMed abstract

Prediction and prevention of extreme neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in a mature health maintenance organization

Author(s): Newman TB; Xiong B; Gonzales VM; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Neonatal sepsis workups in infants >/=2000 grams at birth: A population-based study

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Li DK; Armstrong MA; Gardner MN; Folck BF; Verdi JE; Xiong B; Bergen R
PubMed abstract

A randomized comparison of home and clinic follow-up visits after early postpartum hospital discharge

Author(s): Lieu TA; Braveman PA; Escobar GJ; Fischer AF; Jensvold NG; Capra AM
PubMed abstract

Neonatal assisted ventilation: predictors, frequency, and duration in a mature managed care organization

Author(s): Wilson A; Gardner MN; Armstrong MA; Folck BF; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

The critical role of population-based epidemiology in cost-effectiveness research

Author(s): Joffe S; Lieu TA; Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Frequency of neonatal bilirubin testing and hyperbilirubinemia in a large health maintenance organization

Author(s): Newman TB; Escobar GJ; Gonzales VM; Armstrong MA; Gardner MN; Folck BF
PubMed abstract

Rehospitalization for respiratory syncytial virus among premature infants

Author(s): Joffe S; Escobar GJ; Black SB; Armstrong MA; Lieu TA
PubMed abstract

Cost-effectiveness of respiratory syncytial virus prophylaxis among preterm infants

Author(s): Joffe S; Ray GT; Escobar GJ; Black SB; Lieu TA
PubMed abstract

Rehospitalization in the first two weeks after discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Joffe S; Gardner MN; Armstrong MA; Folck BF; Carpenter DM
PubMed abstract

Preventing neonatal group B streptococcal disease: cost-effectiveness in a health maintenance organization and the impact of delayed hospital discharge for newborns who received intrapartum antibiotics

Author(s): Mohle-Boetani JC; Lieu TA; Ray GT; Escobar G
PubMed abstract

The neonatal 'sepsis work-up': personal reflections on the development of an evidence-based approach toward newborn infections in a managed care organization

Author(s): Escobar GJ
PubMed abstract

Clinical outcomes and maternal perceptions of an updated model of perinatal care

Author(s): Lieu TA; Wikler C; Capra AM; Martin KE; Escobar GJ; Braveman PA
PubMed abstract

Structured review of neonatal deaths in a managed care organisation

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Yanover M; Gardner MN; Golembeski D; Armstrong MA; Shum F; Kipnis P
PubMed abstract