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Gabriel J. Escobar, MD

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Kaiser Permanente Division of Research
2000 Broadway
Oakland, CA 94612

(510) 891-5929 (phone)
gabriel.escobar@kp.org
Kaiser Permanente Researcher Profiles


Gabriel J. Escobar, MD, is a research scientist at the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Division of Research; director of the Division of Research Systems Research Initiative (a research program focusing on adult hospital processes and outcomes, informatics, and program evaluation); and Regional Director for Hospital Operations Research for Kaiser Permanente Northern California, in which capacity he works to improve Kaiser Permanente's internal reporting and quality measurement capabilities. Dr. Escobar received his medical degree from Yale University School of Medicine; completed his pediatrics residency at University of California, San Francisco; and was a Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholar at Stanford University School of Medicine.  He is board certified in Clinical Informatics.

Dr. Escobar's research interests include risk adjustment, predictive modeling, severity-of-illness scoring, the use of comprehensive inpatient and outpatient electronic medical records for health services research, and the use of real-time decision support tools that are embedded in the electronic record. Between 1991 and 2001, Dr. Escobar developed a research program in neonatology for Kaiser Permanente Northern California. In 2001, he began development of his current research program, and in 2009 he turned over the neonatology research program to Michael Kuzniewicz, MD, at the Division of Research so that he could focus on the work of the Systems Research Initiative. Dr. Escobar also worked as a pediatric hospitalist at the Kaiser Permanente Walnut Creek, Antioch, and Oakland Medical Centers between 1984 and 2016.

Current Position(s):

  • Research Scientist III, Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California
  • Regional Director for Hospital Operations Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California

Section Affiliations:

Primary Research Interests:

  • Health services research
  • Risk adjustment
  • Severity-of-illness scoring
  • Predictive modeling
  • Informatics
  • Electronic decision support (general)
  • Implementation of electronic decision support in EMRs
  • Natural language processing
  • Guidelines development
  • Critical care research
  • Quantitative evaluation of program and guideline implementation
  • Human error

Related Website(s):

Social and Functional Predictors of Rehospitalization: YCLS and PROMIS (SDH2)

This project aims to determine whether fields included in the National Institutes of Health’s Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement System (PROMIS) questionnaires for cognition and physical function, as well as those in the Your Current Life Situation (YCLS) questionnaire can enhance our ability to predict rehospitalization. 1600 patients will be interviewed shortly before their hospital discharge from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Oakland, San Leandro, and Walnut Creek Hospitals. Patients at low or medium risk for rehospitalization will be oversampled. Data from the interviews will be combined with an existing real time rehospitalization score in use in all Kaiser Permanente Northern California hospitals. If successful, the project would permit better targeting of patients in need of support following hospitalization.
Investigator: Escobar, Gabriel
Funder: Kaiser Permanente Program Offices

Does Information about Members’ Social Determinants of Health Improve Prediction of Risk for Hospitalization, Emergency Department Visits, and Outpatient Utilization?

The new Kaiser Permanente Your Current Life Situation (YCLS) screening questionnaire will be mailed to a random sample of 7,000 adult members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC), oversampling patients at low to medium risk for hospitalization. After receiving responses, YCLS data will be linked with existing variables known to be predictors of utilization, including age, sex, COPS2 (COmorbidity Point Score, version 2), abLAPS (abbreviated Laboratory-based Acute Physiology Score), other composite indices currently available in KPNC electronic databases, and U.S. census-derived socioeconomic status data. The linked data will be analyzed to determine the extent to which the YCLS data improves prediction of hospitalization, emergency department use, and total outpatient utilization, and, if improvement in prediction is found after incorporating YCLS data, which specific items from the YCLS have the greatest impact. Responses to the YCLS survey, weighted to the adult membership, will also be used to estimate prevalence of KPNC adult members’ social and economic needs.
Investigator: Escobar, Gabriel; Gordon, Nancy
Funder: Kaiser Permanente Program Offices

Characterizing and Predicting Adverse Drug Events Outside the Hospital

This study aims to employ machine learning methods to develop predictive models for adverse drug events, or ADEs, that result in patients using the emergency department and/or being hospitalized (non-nosocomial ADEs, NNADEs). Based on work with a pharmacist expert panel that will include examination of literature as well as KPNC ADE data, six candidate drugs that are currently not the focus of preventive efforts will be selected. A population database that will include geographic information system data as well as ADEs will then be built. Finally, using machine learning methods, the investigators will attempt to develop predictive models for ADEs involving the six selected candidate drugs.
Investigator: Escobar, Gabriel
Funder: Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation

Social and Functional Predictors of Rehospitalization: YCLS and PROMIS

This study aims to determine whether specific items from two questionnaires currently in use at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (the Your Current Life Situation questionnaire and selected functional status questionnaires from the National Institutes of Health’s Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement System) could enhance the ability to predict a patient’s risk of rehospitalization. To achieve this goal, approximately 2,000 patients will be approached on the day of discharge at three hospitals with a target goal of enrolling 1,600. Data from the questionnaires will be combined with other electronic data in order to modify existing algorithms used in the current Kaiser Permanente Northern California real-time rehospitalization prediction model.
Investigator: Escobar, Gabriel
Funder: Kaiser Permanente Program Offices

Early Detection of Obstetric Complications: Development of Predictive Models Suitable for Real-Time Surveillance During Labor, Delivery, and the Postpartum Period

This is a feasibility study to determine whether data from Kaiser Permanente HealthConnect® can be harnessed to predict obstetric complications in real time. The long-term goal is to develop algorithms that could be instantiated in the electronic record to provide clinicians with discrete probability estimates with lead times of 6 to 12 hours. If successful, the algorithms would be instantiated using methods similar to those employed with the Advanced Alert Monitor, the early warning system currently in operation at Kaiser Permanente Northern California.
Investigator: Escobar, Gabriel
Funder: Kaiser Permanente Program Offices

Recovery or Disability? Trajectories After Pneumonia: Integrating 12 Months of Frequent Patient-Reported Measures with EMR Data

This is a pilot study to determine the feasibility of conducting a prospective study that aims to characterize longitudinal trajectories among patients with pneumonia. To achieve this goal, we will attempt to enroll 150 pneumonia patients at the time of hospital discharge, with a goal of retaining 100. Enrolled patients will be interviewed in the hospital, within 1 week of hospital discharge, and then again at 1.5, 3, and 4.5 months post-discharge. Our long-term objectives are to characterize post-discharge trajectories, with special emphasis on the impact of rehospitalization on a patient's subsequent trajectory. The co-principal investigator will be Theodore Iwashyna, MD, PhD, of the University of Michigan.
Investigator: Escobar, Gabriel
Funder: National Institute on Aging

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Preterm Infants: Six Seasons; Experience in an Integrated Health Care Delivery System

We will study the impact of the change in the American Academy of Pediatrics's palivizumab recommendations in a large cohort of infants (300,000) of all gestations over a 7-year period (2010- 2016). We will quantify and characterize the following over this period: 1) occurrence of bronchiolitis in children 24 months of age; 2) testing patterns for Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV); 3) RSV immunoprophylaxis utilization; and 4) health care utilization among infants and children with RSV infection, with particular emphasis on hospitalization and use of intensive care.
Investigator: Escobar, Gabriel
Funder: AstraZeneca PLC

Default Palliative Care Consultation for Seriously Ill Hospitalized Patients

This project aims to test the impact of changing the default mode for palliative care consultation in hospitalized patients from an "opt in" to an "opt out" model. This will be tested in 10-12 Ascension Health hospitals using a stepped wedge design. No KP patients are involved, and Dr. Escobar's primary role will be to assist in the UH2 (planning phase), which has the following aims: develop electronic medical record algorithms to identify patients meeting palliative care triggers; validate data capture of all proposed outcomes in a sample of de-identified patients; validate methods for tracking adherence to electronically generated palliative care orders; establish mechanisms and materials for notifying patients and providers about the research; complete regulatory compliance components, including defining strategy for IRB approval, trial registry, and DSMB assembly.
Investigator: Escobar, Gabriel
Funder: National Institute on Aging

Advance Alert Monitor Operations

The Systems Research Initiative will provide project management and operational consultation for the spread of the Advance Alert Monitor within KPNC between 10/1/16 and 9/30/18. During this time Division of Research will complete the following tasks: continue the support of AAM initiation in all KPNC hospitals; troubleshoot transition from Q6 hours to Q1 hours alarm firing; provide parameters, guidelines, variables, and oversight for quality control algorithms; recalibrate the AAM model twice (once during first year and once during second year); develop documentation for the AAM algorithm and its components; develop documentation for model recalibration; collaborate with KPIT to develop documentation of the Java application; collaborate to hand off operation of AAM to appropriate entities TBD; manual chart abstraction for evaluation of adherence to Life Care Planning program; and preliminary and final outcomes analysis, including submission of manuscripts for publication.
Investigator: Escobar, Gabriel
Funder: Kaiser Foundation Health Plan

Development, Reevaluation and Implementation of Outcome/Efficiency Measures

This project aims to test the feasibility of employing clinical data from comprehensive electronic medical record systems (such as the Epic EMR) for developing, testing and validating potential publicly-reported quality, process, outcomes and risk-adjustment measures on hospitalized adult patients.
Investigator: Escobar, Gabriel
Funder: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services

Early Detection, Prevention and Mitigation of Impending Physiologic Deterioration in Hospitalized Patients Outside the ICU: A Pilot Project

An electronic alert system targeting adult patients in 3 hospital units (ward, telemetry, and transitional care unit) will be deployed at two KPNC hospitals (South San Francisco and Sacramento). The alert system provides early (12 hours) warning about a patient's impending risk of deterioration as well as global risk around the time of admission to the hospital. It will be coupled with changes in clinician workflow (e.g., use of an automated checklist for patients who have triggered an alert) as well as frequent feedback on hospital adverse events from the DOR. To evaluate the pilot intervention, a difference in differences analysis will be conducted in which adverse outcome rates in the two pilot sites will be compared against the remaining 19 KPNC hospitals. Data from the pilot will be used to estimate duration of a stepped wedge cluster randomized trial involving all remaining KPNC hospitals.
Investigator: Escobar, Gabriel
Funder: Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation

CAREER: Managing Patient Flows with Congestion Effects

This project will employ simulation methods to analyze emergency department, hospital, and ICU data, including physiologic markers of severity of illness, with a view to identifying specific patient flow, hospital and ED occupancy states, and processes of care (e.g., early goal-directed therapy for sepsis) associated with improved patient outcomes (e.g., death, unplanned transfer to intensive care) as well as improved system states (e.g., absence of ED overflow conditions, absence of census-driven discharges from hospital units).
Investigator: Escobar, Gabriel
Funder: National Science Foundation

Development of Predictive Models for Recurrent Clostridium Difficile Infection (rCDI)

This project will examine predictors of and outcomes after recurrent Clostridium difficile infection in adults. Predictors will include age, sex, diagnoses, severity of illness, hospital length of stay, and antibiotic exposure. Outcomes will include hospital utilization, particularly use of intensive care, mortality, and other major morbidity (e.g., major bowel surgery). The initial cohort will consist of adults 18 years of age or older who (a) were members on 1/1/02, (b) did not have any C difficile infection between 9/1/01 and 12/31/01, and (c) developed C difficile infection on or after 1/1/02. These patients will then be divided into those that did and did not have a recurrent (2nd) C difficile infection.
Investigator: Escobar, Gabriel
Funder: Merck & Company, Inc.

Postpartum Hemorrhage and Anemia: Epidemiologic and Cost-Effectiveness Analyses

This project, a collaboration with Dr. Alex Butwick at Stanford University, aims to investigate the prevalence and incidence of early postpartum anemia in patients following Cesarean delivery prior to hospital discharge over a 5-year period. As part of this project, we will collect hemoglobin values prior to Cesarean delivery and post-Cesarean hemoglobin values until hospital discharge. We also will collect demographic, obstetric and surgical data. Multivariate logistic regression will be used to determine important variables independently associated with postpartum anemia.
Investigator: Escobar, Gabriel
Funder: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

Early detection, prevention, and mitigation of critical illness outside intensive care settings

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Dellinger RP

J Hosp Med. 2016 Nov;11 Suppl 1:S5-S10.

PubMed abstract

Piloting electronic medical record-based early detection of inpatient deterioration in community hospitals

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Turk BJ; Ragins A; Ha J; Hoberman B; LeVine SM; Ballesca MA; Liu V; Kipnis P

J Hosp Med. 2016 Nov;11 Suppl 1:S18-S24.

PubMed abstract

Nonelective Rehospitalizations and Postdischarge Mortality; Predictive Models Suitable for Use in Real Time

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Ragins A; Scheirer P; Liu V; Robles J; Kipnis P

Med Care. 2015 Nov;53(11):916-23.

PubMed abstract

Risk-adjusting hospital inpatient mortality using automated inpatient, outpatient, and laboratory databases

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Greene JD; Scheirer P; Gardner MN; Draper D; Kipnis P

Med Care. 2008 Mar;46(3):232-9.

PubMed abstract

Risk Adjustment for Hospital Characteristics Reduces Unexplained Hospital Variation in Pressure Injury Risk

Author(s): Linnen DT; Kipnis P; Rondinelli J; Greene JD; Liu V; Escobar GJ

Nurs Res. 2018 Jul/Aug;67(4):314-323.

PubMed abstract

Incorporating Longitudinal Comorbidity and Acute Physiology Data in Template Matching for Assessing Hospital Quality: An Exploratory Study in an Integrated Health Care Delivery System

Author(s): Hu W; Chan CW; Zubizarreta JR; Escobar GJ

Med Care. 2018 Feb 26.

PubMed abstract

The Impact of Acute Organ Dysfunction on Long-Term Survival in Sepsis

Author(s): Schuler A; Wulf DA; Lu Y; Iwashyna TJ; Escobar GJ; Shah NH; Liu VX

Crit Care Med. 2018 Feb 09.

PubMed abstract

Accuracy of international classification of diseases, ninth revision, codes for postpartum hemorrhage among women undergoing cesarean delivery

Author(s): Butwick AJ; Walsh EM; Kuzniewicz M; Li SX; Escobar GJ

Transfusion. 2018 Jan 26.

PubMed abstract

Effectiveness of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Immunoprophylaxis on Bronchiolitis Hospitalizations among High-risk Infants

Author(s): Wu P; Escobar GJ; Gebretsadik T; Carroll KN; Li SX; Walsh EM; Mitchel EF; Sloan C; Dupont WD; Yu C; Horner JR; Hartert TV

Am J Epidemiol. 2018 Jan 17.

PubMed abstract

Healthcare Utilization and Infection in the Week Prior to Sepsis Hospitalization

Author(s): Liu VX; Escobar GJ; Chaudhary R; Prescott HC

Crit Care Med. 2018 Jan 05.

PubMed abstract

Hospital-Acquired Pressure Injury: Risk-Adjusted Comparisons in an Integrated Healthcare Delivery System

Author(s): Rondinelli J; Zuniga S; Kipnis P; Kawar LN; Liu V; Escobar GJ

Nurs Res. 2018 Jan/Feb;67(1):16-25.

PubMed abstract

Comparing Hospital Processes and Outcomes in California Medicare Beneficiaries: Simulation Prompts Reconsideration

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Baker JM; Turk BJ; Draper D; Liu V; Kipnis P

Perm J. 2017;21.

PubMed abstract

Prediction of Recurrent Clostridium Difficile Infection Using Comprehensive Electronic Medical Records in an Integrated Healthcare Delivery System

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Baker JM; Kipnis P; Greene JD; Mast TC; Gupta SB; Cossrow N; Mehta V; Liu V; Dubberke ER

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2017 Aug 24:1-8.

PubMed abstract

Adaptation of the Acute Organ Failure Score for Use in a Medicare Population

Author(s): Courtright KR; Halpern SD; Bayes B; Harhay MO; Raneses E; Kipnis P; Escobar GJ; Kerlin MP

Crit Care Med. 2017 Aug 02.

PubMed abstract

Individual and health system variation in rehospitalizations the year after pneumonia

Author(s): Viglianti EM; Prescott HC; Liu V; Escobar GJ; Iwashyna TJ

Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Aug;96(31):e7695.

PubMed abstract

Identifying Distinct Subgroups of ICU Patients: A Machine Learning Approach

Author(s): Vranas KC; Jopling JK; Sweeney TE; Ramsey MC; Milstein AS; Slatore CG; Escobar GJ; Liu VX

Crit Care Med. 2017 Jun 21.

PubMed abstract

Reply to the Timing of Early Antibiotics and Hospital Mortality in Sepsis - Playing Devil's Advocate

Author(s): Liu V; Fielding-Singh V; Iwashyna TJ; Bhattacharya J; Escobar G

Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017 May 09.

PubMed abstract

The Timing of Early Antibiotics and Hospital Mortality in Sepsis

Author(s): Liu VX; Fielding-Singh V; Greene JD; Baker JM; Iwashyna TJ; Bhattacharya J; Escobar GJ

Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017 Mar 27.

PubMed abstract

A Quantitative, Risk-Based Approach to the Management of Neonatal Early-Onset Sepsis

Author(s): Kuzniewicz MW; Puopolo KM; Fischer A; Walsh EM; Li S; Newman TB; Kipnis P; Escobar GJ

JAMA Pediatr. 2017 Feb 20.

PubMed abstract

Evaluation Following Staggered Implementation of the "Rethinking Critical Care" ICU Care Bundle in a Multicenter Community Setting

Author(s): Liu V; Herbert D; Foss-Durant A; Marelich GP; Patel A; Whippy A; Turk BJ; Ragins AI; Kipnis P; Escobar GJ

Crit Care Med. 2015 Nov 4.

PubMed abstract

Early detection of critical illness outside the intensive care unit: Clarifying treatment plans and honoring goals of care using a supportive care team

Author(s): Granich R; Sutton Z; Kim YS; Anderson M; Wood H; Scharf JE; Ragins A; Escobar GJ

J Hosp Med. 2016 Nov;11 Suppl 1:S40-S47.

PubMed abstract

Data that drive: Closing the loop in the learning hospital system

Author(s): Liu VX; Morehouse JW; Baker JM; Greene JD; Kipnis P; Escobar GJ

J Hosp Med. 2016 Nov;11 Suppl 1:S11-S17.

PubMed abstract

Early detection, prevention, and mitigation of critical illness outside intensive care settings

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Dellinger RP

J Hosp Med. 2016 Nov;11 Suppl 1:S5-S10.

PubMed abstract

Piloting electronic medical record-based early detection of inpatient deterioration in community hospitals

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Turk BJ; Ragins A; Ha J; Hoberman B; LeVine SM; Ballesca MA; Liu V; Kipnis P

J Hosp Med. 2016 Nov;11 Suppl 1:S18-S24.

PubMed abstract

Implementation of a multicenter performance improvement program for early detection and treatment of severe sepsis in general medical-surgical wards

Author(s): Schorr C; Odden A; Evans L; Escobar GJ; Gandhi S; Townsend S; Levy M

J Hosp Med. 2016 Nov;11 Suppl 1:S32-S39.

PubMed abstract

Development and Validation of an Electronic Medical Record-Based Alert Score for Detection of Inpatient Deterioration Outside the ICU

Author(s): Kipnis P; Turk BJ; Wulf DA; Carlos LaGuardia J; XLiu V; Churpek MM; Romero-Brufau S; Escobar GJ

J Biomed Inform. 2016 Sep 19.

PubMed abstract

Patterns and predictors of severe postpartum anemia after Cesarean section

Author(s): Butwick AJ; Walsh EM; Kuzniewicz M; Li SX; Escobar GJ

Transfusion. 2016 Sep 13.

PubMed abstract

Predicting red blood cell transfusion in hospitalized patients: role of hemoglobin level, comorbidities, and illness severity

Author(s): Roubinian NH; Murphy EL; Swain BE; Gardner MN; Liu V; Escobar GJ; NHLBI Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III (REDS-III); Northern California Kaiser Permanente DOR Systems Research Initiative

BMC Health Serv Res. 2014;14:213. Epub 2014-05-10.

PubMed abstract

Hospital Deaths in Patients With Sepsis From 2 Independent Cohorts

Author(s): Liu V; Escobar GJ; Greene JD; Soule J; Whippy A; Angus DC; Iwashyna TJ

JAMA. 2014 Jul 2;312(1):90-2.

PubMed abstract

Big data in health care: using analytics to identify and manage high-risk and high-cost patients

Author(s): Bates DW; Saria S; Ohno-Machado L; Shah A; Escobar G

Health Aff (Millwood). 2014 Jul 1;33(7):1123-31.

PubMed abstract

Rationale and Design of the Randomized Evaluation of Default Access to Palliative Services (REDAPS) Trial

Author(s): Courtright KR; Madden V; Gabler NB; Cooney E; Small DS; Troxel A; Casarett D; Ersek M; Cassel JB; Nicholas LH; Escobar G; Hill SH; O'Brien D; Vogel M; Halpern SD

Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2016 Jun 27.

PubMed abstract

Association Among ICU Congestion, ICU Admission Decision, and Patient Outcomes

Author(s): Kim SH; Chan CW; Olivares M; Escobar GJ

Crit Care Med. 2016 Jun 21.

PubMed abstract

Development and Implementation of an Early-Onset Sepsis Calculator to Guide Antibiotic Management in Late Preterm and Term Neonates

Author(s): Kuzniewicz MW1; Walsh EM; Li S; Fischer A; Escobar GJ;

​​Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2016 May;42(5):232-9.

PubMed abstract

Consensus Statement on Electronic Health Predictive Analytics: A Guiding Framework to Address Challenges

Author(s): Amarasingham R; Audet AM; Bates DW; Glenn Cohen I; Entwistle M; Escobar GJ; Liu V; Etheredge L; Lo B; Ohno-Machado L; Ram S; Saria S; Schilling LM; Shahi A; Stewart WF; Steyerberg EW; Xie B

EGEMS (Wash DC). 2016;4(1):1163. Epub 2016-03-07.

PubMed abstract

Multicenter Implementation of a Treatment Bundle for Sepsis Patients with Intermediate Lactate Values

Author(s): Liu VX; Morehouse JW; Marelich GP; Soule J; Russell T; Skeath M; Adams C; Escobar GJ; Whippy A

Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015 Dec 22.

PubMed abstract

Nonelective Rehospitalizations and Postdischarge Mortality; Predictive Models Suitable for Use in Real Time

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Ragins A; Scheirer P; Liu V; Robles J; Kipnis P

Med Care. 2015 Nov;53(11):916-23.

PubMed abstract

Why the C-statistic is not informative to evaluate early warning scores and what metrics to use

Author(s): Romero-Brufau S; Huddleston JM; Escobar GJ; Liebow M

Crit Care. 2015;19(1):285. Epub 2015-08-13.

PubMed abstract

Lack of improved outcomes with increased use of targeted temperature management following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A multicenter retrospective cohort study

Author(s): Mark DG; Vinson DR; Hung YY; Anderson ES; Escobar GJ; Carr BG; Abella BS; Ballard DW

Resuscitation. 2014 Nov;85(11):1549-56. Epub 2014-08-30.

PubMed abstract

Trends in red blood cell transfusion and 30-day mortality among hospitalized patients

Author(s): Roubinian NH; Escobar GJ; Liu V; Swain BE; Gardner MN; Kipnis P; Triulzi DJ; Gottschall JL; Wu Y; Carson JL; Kleinman SH; Murphy EL; NHLBI Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study (REDS-III)

Transfusion. 2014 Oct;54(10 Pt 2):2678-86. Epub 2014-08-18.

PubMed abstract

Maternal Acculturation and the Prenatal Care Experience

Author(s): Fuentes-Afflick E; Odouli R; Escobar GJ; Stewart AL; Hessol NA

J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2014 Aug;23(8):688-706. Epub 2014-06-30.

PubMed abstract

Combining Immature and Total Neutrophil Counts to Predict Early Onset Sepsis in Term and Late Preterm Newborns: Use of the I/T2

Author(s): Newman TB; Draper D; Puopolo KM; Wi S; Escobar GJ

Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2014 Aug;33(8):798-802.

PubMed abstract

Decreased Red Blood Cell Use and Mortality in Hospitalized Patients

Author(s): Roubinian NH; Escobar GJ; Liu V; Gardner MN; Carson JL; Kleinman SH; Murphy EL; NHLBI Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study (REDS-III)

JAMA Intern Med. 2014 Aug;174(8):1405-7.

PubMed abstract

Hospital readmission and healthcare utilization following sepsis in community settings

Author(s): Liu V; Lei X; Prescott HC; Kipnis P; Iwashyna TJ; Escobar GJ

J Hosp Med. 2014 Aug;9(8):502-7. Epub 2014-04-04.

PubMed abstract

Increased one-year health care utilization in survivors of severe sepsis

Author(s): Prescott HC; Langa KM; Liu V; Escobar GJ; Iwashyna TJ

Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014 Jul 1;190(1):62-9.

PubMed abstract

Accuracy of hospital standardized mortality rates: effects of model calibration

Author(s): Kipnis P; Liu V; Escobar GJ

Med Care. 2014 Apr;52(4):378-84.

PubMed abstract

Promotion of Lung Health: NHLBI Workshop on the Primary Prevention of Chronic Lung Diseases

Author(s): Camargo CA; Budinger GR; Escobar GJ; Hansel NN; Hanson CK; Huffnagle GB; Buist AS

Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2014 Apr;11 Suppl 3:S125-38.

PubMed abstract

An electronic order set for acute myocardial infarction is associated with improved patient outcomes through better adherence to clinical practice guidelines

Author(s): Ballesca MA; LaGuardia JC; Lee PC; Hwang AM; Park DK; Gardner MN; Turk BJ; Kipnis P; Escobar GJ

J Hosp Med. 2014 Mar;9(3):155-61. Epub 2014-02-03.

PubMed abstract

Stratification of Risk of Early-Onset Sepsis in Newborns =34 Weeks' Gestation

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Puopolo KM; Wi S; Turk BJ; Kuzniewicz MW; Walsh EM; Newman TB; Zupancic J; Lieberman E; Draper D

Pediatrics. 2014 Jan;133(1):30-6. Epub 2013-12-23.

PubMed abstract

Hospital readmissions and emergency department visits in moderate preterm, late preterm, and early term infants

Author(s): Kuzniewicz MW; Parker SJ; Schnake-Mahl A; Escobar GJ

Clin Perinatol. 2013 Dec;40(4):753-75. Epub 2013-09-20.

PubMed abstract

Respiratory syncytial virus infection is linked to recurrent wheezing in healthy premature infants

Author(s): Escobar GJ

J Pediatr. 2013 Nov;163(5):1531.

PubMed abstract

Fluid Volume, Lactate Values, and Mortality in Sepsis Patients with Intermediate Lactate Values

Author(s): Liu V; Morehouse JW; Soule J; Whippy A; Escobar GJ

Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2013 Oct;10(5):466-73.

PubMed abstract

Adherence to Immunoprophylaxis Regimens for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Insured and Medicaid Populations

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Gebretsadik T; Carroll K; Li SX; Walsh EM; Wu P; Mitchel E; Sloan C; Hartert T

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2013 Sep;2(3):205-14. Epub 2013-03-21.

PubMed abstract

Automated identification of pneumonia in chest radiograph reports in critically ill patients

Author(s): Liu V; Clark MP; Mendoza M; Saket R; Gardner MN; Turk BJ; Escobar GJ

BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2013;13:90. Epub 2013-08-15.

PubMed abstract

Persistent recurring wheezing in the fifth year of life after laboratory-confirmed, medically attended respiratory syncytial virus infection in infancy

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Masaquel AS; Li SX; Walsh EM; Kipnis P

BMC Pediatr. 2013;13:97.

PubMed abstract

Risk of childhood asthma following infant bronchiolitis during the respiratory syncytial virus season

Author(s): James KM; Gebretsadik T; Escobar GJ; Wu P; Carroll KN; Li SX; Walsh EM; Mitchel EF; Sloan C; Hartert TV

J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 Jul;132(1):227-9. Epub 2013 Feb 16.

PubMed abstract

Risk-adjusting Hospital Mortality Using a Comprehensive Electronic Record in an Integrated Health Care Delivery System

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Gardner MN; Greene JD; Draper D; Kipnis P

Med Care. 2013 May;51(5):446-53.

PubMed abstract

Early-onset sepsis: a predictive model based on maternal risk factors

Author(s): Puopolo KM; Escobar GJ

Curr Opin Pediatr. 2013 Apr;25(2):161-6.

PubMed abstract

Addition of time-dependent covariates to a survival model significantly improved predictions for daily risk of hospital death

Author(s): Wong J; Taljaard M; Forster AJ; Escobar GJ; van Walraven C

J Eval Clin Pract. 2013 Apr;19(2):351-7. Epub 2012 Mar 12.

PubMed abstract

An electronic simplified acute physiology score-based risk adjustment score for critical illness in an integrated healthcare system*

Author(s): Liu V; Turk BJ; Ragins AI; Kipnis P; Escobar GJ

Crit Care Med. 2013 Jan;41(1):41-8.

PubMed abstract

Adverse outcomes associated with delayed intensive care unit transfers in an integrated healthcare system

Author(s): Liu V; Kipnis P; Rizk NW; Escobar GJ

J Hosp Med. 2011 Oct 28.

PubMed abstract

Risk factors for unplanned transfer to intensive care within 24 hours of admission from the emergency department in an integrated healthcare system

Author(s): Delgado MK; Liu V; Pines JM; Kipnis P; Gardner MN; Escobar GJ

J Hosp Med. 2013 Jan;8(1):13-9. Epub 2012 Sep 28.

PubMed abstract

The association between sepsis and potential medical injury among hospitalized patients

Author(s): Liu V; Turk BJ; Rizk NW; Kipnis P; Escobar GJ

Chest. 2012 Sep;142(3):606-13.

PubMed abstract

Underimmunization at discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit

Author(s): Navar-Boggan AM; Halsey NA; Escobar GJ; Golden WC; Klein NP

J Perinatol. 2012 May;32(5):363-7. Epub 2011 Aug 11.

PubMed abstract

The impact of maternal characteristics on the moderately premature infant: an antenatal maternal transport clinical prediction rule

Author(s): Dukhovny D; Dukhovny S; Pursley DM; Escobar GJ; McCormick MC; Mao WY; Zupancic JA

J Perinatol. 2012 Jul;32(7):532-8. Epub 2011 Nov 10.

PubMed abstract

Racial and ethnic differences in the prevalence of placenta previa

Author(s): Kim LH; Caughey AB; Laguardia JC; Escobar GJ

J Perinatol. 2012 Apr;32(4):260-4. Epub 2011 Jun 30.

PubMed abstract

Interpersonal Processes of Care and Cesarean Delivery in Two Health Care Settings

Author(s): Hessol NA; Odouli R; Escobar GJ; Stewart AL; Fuentes-Afflick E

Am J Public Health. 2012 Sep;102(9):1722-8. Epub 2012 Jun 21.

PubMed abstract

Frequency, duration and predictors of bronchiolitis episodes of care among infants [greater than or equal to]32 weeks gestation in a large integrated healthcare system: a retrospective cohort study

Author(s): Ragins AI; Li SX; Kipnis P; Masaquel A; Escobar GJ; Flaherman VJ

BMC Health Serv Res. 2012 Jun 8;12:144.

PubMed abstract

Early detection of impending physiologic deterioration among patients who are not in intensive care: Development of predictive models using data from an automated electronic medical record

Author(s): Escobar GJ; LaGuardia JC; Turk BJ; Ragins A; Kipnis P; Draper D

J Hosp Med. 2012 May-Jun;7(5):388-95. Epub 2012 Mar 22.

PubMed abstract

Total Serum Bilirubin Exceeding Exchange Transfusion Thresholds in the Setting of Universal Screening

Author(s): Flaherman VJ; Kuzniewicz MW; Escobar GJ; Newman TB

J Pediatr. 2012 May;160(5):796-800.e1. Epub 2011 Dec 1.

PubMed abstract

Risk of preterm delivery in non-diabetic women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

Author(s): Yamamoto M; Feigenbaum SL; Crites Y; Escobar GJ; Yang J; Ferrara A; Lo JC

J Perinatol. 2012 Oct;32(10):770-6. Epub 2012 Jan 19.

PubMed abstract

Estimating the probability of neonatal early-onset infection on the basis of maternal risk factors

Author(s): Puopolo KM; Draper D; Wi S; Newman TB; Zupancic J; Lieberman E; Smith M; Escobar GJ

Pediatrics. 2011 Nov;128(5):e1155-63. Epub 2011 Oct 24.

PubMed abstract

Derivation and validation of a model to predict daily risk of death in hospital

Author(s): Wong J; Taljaard M; Forster AJ; Escobar GJ; van Walraven C

Med Care. 2011 Aug;49(8):734-43.

PubMed abstract

Epidemiology of apnea and bradycardia resolution in premature infants

Author(s): Lorch SA; Srinivasan L; Escobar GJ

Pediatrics. 2011 Aug;128(2):e366-73. Epub 2011 Jul 11.

PubMed abstract

Variation in diagnosis of apnea in moderately preterm infants predicts length of stay

Author(s): Eichenwald EC; Zupancic JA; Mao WY; Richardson DK; McCormick MC; Escobar GJ

Pediatrics. 2011 Jan;127(1):e53-8. Epub 2010 Dec 27.

PubMed abstract

Respiratory syncytial virus testing during bronchiolitis episodes of care in an integrated health care delivery system: a retrospective cohort study

Author(s): Flaherman V; Li S; Ragins A; Masaquel A; Kipnis P; Escobar GJ

Clin Ther. 2010 Dec;32(13):2220-9.

PubMed abstract

Interpreting conjugated bilirubin levels in newborns

Author(s): Davis AR; Rosenthal P; Escobar GJ; Newman TB

J Pediatr. 2011 Apr;158(4):562-565.e1. Epub 2010 Nov 12.

PubMed abstract

Interpreting complete blood counts soon after birth in newborns at risk for sepsis

Author(s): Newman TB; Puopolo KM; Wi S; Draper D; Escobar GJ

Pediatrics. 2010 Nov;126(5):903-9. Epub 2010 Oct 25.

PubMed abstract

Recurrent wheezing in the third year of life among children born at 32 weeks' gestation or later: relationship to laboratory-confirmed, medically attended infection with respiratory syncytial virus during the first year of life

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Ragins A; Li SX; Prager L; Masaquel AS; Kipnis P

Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2010 Oct;164(10):915-22.

PubMed abstract

Length of stay and imminent discharge probability distributions from multistage models: variation by diagnosis, severity of illness, and hospital

Author(s): Harrison GW; Escobar GJ

Health Care Manag Sci. 2010 Sep;13(3):268-79.

PubMed abstract

Premature infants born to adolescent mothers: health care utilization after initial discharge

Author(s): Ray KN; Escobar GJ; Lorch SA

Acad Pediatr. 2010 Sep-Oct;10(5):302-8.

PubMed abstract

Length of stay predictions: improvements through the use of automated laboratory and comorbidity variables

Author(s): Liu V; Kipnis P; Gould MK; Escobar GJ

Med Care. 2010 Aug;48(8):739-44.

PubMed abstract

Effect of choice of estimation method on inter-hospital mortality rate comparisons

Author(s): Kipnis P; Escobar GJ; Draper D

Med Care. 2010 May;48(5):458-65.

PubMed abstract

Maternal and paternal race/ethnicity are both associated with gestational diabetes

Author(s): Caughey AB; Cheng YW; Stotland NE; Washington AE; Escobar GJ

Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Jun;202(6):616.e1-5. Epub 2010 Apr 18.

PubMed abstract

Effect of neonatal jaundice and phototherapy on the frequency of first-year outpatient visits

Author(s): Usatin D; Liljestrand P; Kuzniewicz MW; Escobar GJ; Newman TB

Pediatrics. 2010 Apr;125(4):729-34. Epub 2010 Mar 15.

PubMed abstract

Risk of fever and sepsis evaluations after routine immunizations in the neonatal intensive care unit

Author(s): Navar-Boggan AM; Halsey NA; Golden WC; Escobar GJ; Massolo M; Klein NP

J Perinatol. 2010 Sep;30(9):604-9. Epub 2010 Feb 25.

PubMed abstract

Intra-hospital transfers to a higher level of care: contribution to total hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) mortality and length of stay (LOS)

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Greene JD; Gardner MN; Marelich GP; Quick B; Kipnis P

J Hosp Med. 2011 Feb;6(2):74-80. Epub 2010 Dec 17.

PubMed abstract

The role of outpatient facilities in explaining variations in risk-adjusted readmission rates between hospitals

Author(s): Lorch SA; Baiocchi M; Silber JH; Even-Shoshan O; Escobar GJ; Small DS

Health Serv Res. 2010 Feb;45(1):24-41. Epub 2009 Sep 24.

PubMed abstract

Patient-to-nurse ratios and outcomes of moderately preterm infants

Author(s): Profit J; Petersen LA; McCormick MC; Escobar GJ; Coleman-Phox K; Zheng Z; Pietz K; Zupancic JA

Pediatrics. 2010 Feb;125(2):320-6. Epub 2010 Jan 11.

PubMed abstract

The Kaiser Permanente inpatient risk adjustment methodology was valid in an external patient population

Author(s): van Walraven C; Escobar GJ; Greene JD; Forster AJ

J Clin Epidemiol. 2010 Jul;63(7):798-803. Epub 2009 Dec 11.

PubMed abstract

Impact of universal bilirubin screening on severe hyperbilirubinemia and phototherapy use

Author(s): Kuzniewicz MW; Escobar GJ; Newman TB

Pediatrics. 2009 Oct;124(4):1031-9. Epub 2009 Sep 28.

PubMed abstract

Use of the motor performance checklist to study motor outcomes in 5-year-olds

Author(s): Liljestrand P; Jeremy RJ; Wu YW; Ferriero DM; Escobar GJ; Newman TB

J Paediatr Child Health. 2009 Jun;45(6):368-74. Epub 2007 Sep 4.

PubMed abstract

Infant functional status: the timing of physiologic maturation of premature infants

Author(s): Bakewell-Sachs S; Medoff-Cooper B; Escobar GJ; Silber JH; Lorch SA

Pediatrics. 2009 May;123(5):e878-86.

PubMed abstract

Numbers needed to treat with phototherapy according to American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines

Author(s): Newman TB; Kuzniewicz MW; Liljestrand P; Wi S; McCulloch C; Escobar GJ

Pediatrics. 2009 May;123(5):1352-9.

PubMed abstract

Time to send the preemie home? Additional maturity at discharge and subsequent health care costs and outcomes

Author(s): Silber JH; Lorch SA; Rosenbaum PR; Medoff-Cooper B; Bakewell-Sachs S; Millman A; Mi L; Even-Shoshan O; Escobar GJ

Health Serv Res. 2009 Apr;44(2 Pt 1):444-63. Epub 2008 Dec 31.

PubMed abstract

Increased risk of adverse neurological development for late preterm infants

Author(s): Petrini JR; Dias T; McCormick MC; Massolo ML; Green NS; Escobar GJ

J Pediatr. 2009 Feb;154(2):169-76. Epub 2008 Dec 10.

PubMed abstract

No association between hyperbilirubinemia and attention-deficit disorder

Author(s): Kuzniewicz M; Escobar GJ; Newman TB

Pediatrics. 2009 Feb;123(2):e367-8.

PubMed abstract

Using drink size to talk about drinking during pregnancy: a randomized clinical trial of Early Start Plus

Author(s): Armstrong MA; Kaskutas LA; Witbrodt J; Taillac CJ; Hung YY; Osejo VM; Escobar GJ

Soc Work Health Care. 2009 Jan;48(1):90-103.

PubMed abstract

Risk factors for severe hyperbilirubinemia among infants with borderline bilirubin levels: a nested case-control study

Author(s): Kuzniewicz MW; Escobar GJ; Wi S; Liljestrand P; McCulloch C; Newman TB

J Pediatr. 2008 Aug;153(2):234-40. Epub 2008 Mar 21.

PubMed abstract

Factors influencing parental satisfaction with neonatal intensive care among the families of moderately premature infants

Author(s): McCormick MC; Escobar GJ; Zheng Z; Richardson DK

Pediatrics. 2008 Jun;121(6):1111-8.

PubMed abstract

Risk adjusting community-acquired pneumonia hospital outcomes using automated databases

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Fireman BH; Palen TE; Gardner MN; Lee JY; Clark MP; Kipnis P

Am J Manag Care. 2008 Mar;14(3):158-66.

PubMed abstract

Risk-adjusting hospital inpatient mortality using automated inpatient, outpatient, and laboratory databases

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Greene JD; Scheirer P; Gardner MN; Draper D; Kipnis P

Med Care. 2008 Mar;46(3):232-9.

PubMed abstract

Risk factors for developing apnea after immunization in the neonatal intensive care unit

Author(s): Klein NP; Massolo ML; Greene J; Dekker CL; Black S; Escobar GJ; Vaccine Safety Datalink

Pediatrics. 2008 Mar;121(3):463-9.

PubMed abstract

Racial differences in the use of respiratory medications in premature infants after discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit

Author(s): Lorch SA; Wade KC; Bakewell-Sachs S; Medoff-Cooper B; Escobar GJ; Silber JH

J Pediatr. 2007 Dec;151(6):604-10, 610.e1. Epub 2007 Aug 24.

PubMed abstract

Incorporation of physiological trend and interaction effects in neonatal severity of illness scores: an experiment using a variant of the Richardson score

Author(s): Kuzniewicz M; Draper D; Escobar GJ

Intensive Care Med. 2007 Sep;33(9):1602-8. Epub 2007 Jun 19.

PubMed abstract

Five-year neurodevelopmental outcome of neonatal dehydration

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Liljestrand P; Hudes ES; Ferriero DM; Wu YW; Jeremy RJ; Newman TB

J Pediatr. 2007 Aug;151(2):127-33, 133.e1.

PubMed abstract

Pregnancy plasma glucose levels exceeding the American Diabetes Association thresholds, but below the National Diabetes Data Group thresholds for gestational diabetes mellitus, are related to the risk of neonatal macrosomia, hypoglycaemia and hyperbilirubinaemia

Author(s): Ferrara A; Weiss NS; Hedderson MM; Quesenberry CP Jr; Selby JV; Ergas IJ; Peng T; Escobar GJ; Pettitt DJ; Sacks DA

Diabetologia. 2007 Feb;50(2):298-306. Epub 2006 Nov 14.

PubMed abstract

Maternal and obstetric complications of pregnancy are associated with increasing gestational age at term

Author(s): Caughey AB; Stotland NE; Washington AE; Escobar GJ

Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Feb;196(2):155.e1-6.

PubMed abstract

Neonatal intensive care unit census influences discharge of moderately preterm infants

Author(s): Profit J; McCormick MC; Escobar GJ; Richardson DK; Zheng Z; Coleman-Phox K; Roberts R; Zupancic JA

Pediatrics. 2007 Feb;119(2):314-9.

PubMed abstract

Using drink size to talk about drinking during pregnancy: Early start plus

Author(s): Witbrodt J; Armstrong MA; Diehl S; Kaskutas LA; Taillac C; Osejo VM; Escobar GJ

J Addict Nurs. 2007;18(4):199-206.

PubMed abstract

Increased prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus among women with diagnosed polycystic ovary syndrome: a population-based study

Author(s): Lo JC; Feigenbaum SL; Escobar GJ; Yang J; Crites YM; Ferrara A

Diabetes Care. 2006 Aug;29(8):1915-7.

PubMed abstract

Unstudied infants: outcomes of moderately premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit

Author(s): Escobar GJ; McCormick MC; Zupancic JA; Coleman-Phox K; Armstrong MA; Greene JD; Eichenwald EC; Richardson DK

Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2006 Jul;91(4):F238-44. Epub 2006 Apr 12.

PubMed abstract

Outcomes among newborns with total serum bilirubin levels of 25 mg per deciliter or more

Author(s): Newman TB; Liljestrand P; Jeremy RJ; Ferriero DM; Wu YW; Hudes ES; Escobar GJ; Jaundice and Infant Feeding Study Team

N Engl J Med. 2006 May 4;354(18):1889-900.

PubMed abstract

Short-term outcomes of infants born at 35 and 36 weeks gestation: we need to ask more questions

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Clark RH; Greene JD

Semin Perinatol. 2006 Feb;30(1):28-33.

PubMed abstract

Place of birth and variations in management of late preterm ('near-term') infants

Author(s): McCormick MC; Escobar GJ; Zheng Z; Richardson DK

Semin Perinatol. 2006 Feb;30(1):44-7.

PubMed abstract

Moderately premature infants at Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program in California are discharged home earlier than their peers in Massachusetts and the United Kingdom

Author(s): Profit J; Zupancic JA; McCormick MC; Richardson DK; Escobar GJ; Tucker J; Tarnow-Mordi W; Parry G

Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2006 Jul;91(4):F245-50. Epub 2006 Jan 31.

PubMed abstract

Pre-pregnancy and pregnancy-related factors and the risk of excessive or inadequate gestational weight gain

Author(s): Brawarsky P; Stotland NE; Jackson RA; Fuentes-Afflick E; Escobar GJ; Rubashkin N; Haas JS

Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2005 Nov;91(2):125-31. Epub 2005 Oct 3.

PubMed abstract

What have we learned from observational studies on neonatal sepsis?

Author(s): Escobar GJ

Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2005 May;6(3 Suppl):S138-45.

PubMed abstract

Trends in severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia rates between 1994 and 2002

Author(s): Smith VC; Zupancic JA; McCormick MC; Croen LA; Greene J; Escobar GJ; Richardson DK

J Pediatr. 2005 Apr;146(4):469-73.

PubMed abstract

Body mass index, provider advice, and target gestational weight gain

Author(s): Stotland NE; Haas JS; Brawarsky P; Jackson RA; Fuentes-Afflick E; Escobar GJ

Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Mar;105(3):633-8.

PubMed abstract

Prevalence of motor abnormalities among healthy 5-year old children

Author(s): Wu YW; Liljestrand P; Ferriero DM; Hayward J; Jeremy RJ; Escobar GJ; Newman TB

J Pediatr Neurol. 2005;3(3):141-6.

PubMed abstract

Looking for Trouble in All the Right Places: The Legal Implications Associated with 'Electronic Signatures' and High-risk Clinical Situations

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Folck BF; Gardner MN; Ma J; Palmer LI; Liang B; Nozick LK

In: Henriksen K, Battles JB, Marks ES, Lewin DI, editors. Advances in Patient Safety: From Research to Implementation (Volume 3: Implementation Issues). Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2005 Feb.

PubMed abstract

Combining clinical risk factors with serum bilirubin levels to predict hyperbilirubinemia in newborns

Author(s): Newman TB; Liljestrand P; Escobar GJ

Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005 Feb;159(2):113-9.

PubMed abstract

Rehospitalisation after birth hospitalisation: patterns among infants of all gestations

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Greene JD; Hulac P; Kincannon E; Bischoff K; Gardner MN; Armstrong MA; France EK

Arch Dis Child. 2005 Feb;90(2):125-31.

PubMed abstract

Prepregnancy health status and the risk of preterm delivery

Author(s): Haas JS; Fuentes-Afflick E; Stewart AL; Jackson RA; Dean ML; Brawarsky P; Escobar GJ

Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005 Jan;159(1):58-63.

PubMed abstract

Changes in the health status of women during and after pregnancy

Author(s): Haas JS; Jackson RA; Fuentes-Afflick E; Stewart AL; Dean ML; Brawarsky P; Escobar GJ

J Gen Intern Med. 2005 Jan;20(1):45-51.

PubMed abstract

Risk factors and obstetric complications associated with macrosomia

Author(s): Stotland NE; Caughey AB; Breed EM; Escobar GJ

Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2004 Dec;87(3):220-6.

PubMed abstract

Richardson score predicts short-term adverse respiratory outcomes in newborns /=34 weeks gestation

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Shaheen SM; Breed EM; Botas C; Greene JD; Yoshida CK; Zupancic J; Newman TB

J Pediatr. 2004 Dec;145(6):754-60.

PubMed abstract

Perinatal stroke in children with motor impairment: a population-based study

Author(s): Wu YW; March WM; Croen LA; Grether JK; Escobar GJ; Newman TB

Pediatrics. 2004 Sep;114(3):612-9.

PubMed abstract

Rehospitalization in the first year of life among infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia

Author(s): Smith VC; Zupancic JA; McCormick MC; Croen LA; Greene J; Escobar GJ; Richardson DK

J Pediatr. 2004 Jun;144(6):799-803.

PubMed abstract

Chorioamnionitis and cerebral palsy in term and near-term infants

Author(s): Wu YW; Escobar GJ; Grether JK; Croen LA; Greene JD; Newman TB

JAMA. 2003 Nov 26;290(20):2677-84.

PubMed abstract

What is the best measure of maternal complications of term pregnancy: ongoing pregnancies or pregnancies delivered?

Author(s): Caughey AB; Stotland NE; Escobar GJ

Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Oct;189(4):1047-52.

PubMed abstract

Clinician support and psychosocial risk factors associated with breastfeeding discontinuation

Author(s): Taveras EM; Capra AM; Braveman PA; Jensvold NG; Escobar GJ; Lieu TA

Pediatrics. 2003 Jul;112(1 Pt 1):108-15.

PubMed abstract

Infants with bilirubin levels of 30 mg/dL or more in a large managed care organization

Author(s): Newman TB; Liljestrand P; Escobar GJ

Pediatrics. 2003 Jun;111(6 Pt 1):1303-11.

PubMed abstract

Phototherapy use in jaundiced newborns in a large managed care organization: do clinicians adhere to the guideline?

Author(s): Atkinson LR; Escobar GJ; Takayama JI; Newman TB

Pediatrics. 2003 May;111(5 Pt 1):e555-61.

PubMed abstract

Perinatal substance abuse intervention in obstetric clinics decreases adverse neonatal outcomes

Author(s): Armstrong MA; Gonzales Osejo V; Lieberman L; Carpenter DM; Pantoja PM; Escobar GJ

J Perinatol. 2003 Jan;23(1):3-9.

PubMed abstract

Effect of the systemic inflammatory response on biochemical markers of neonatal bacterial infection: a fresh look at old confounders

Author(s): Escobar GJ

Clin Chem. 2003 Jan;49(1):21-2.

PubMed abstract

Jaundice noted in the first 24 hours after birth in a managed care organization

Author(s): Newman TB; Liljestrand P; Escobar GJ

Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002 Dec;156(12):1244-50.

PubMed abstract

Rehospitalization for neonatal dehydration: a nested case-control study

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Gonzales VM; Armstrong MA; Folck BF; Xiong B; Newman TB

Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002 Feb;156(2):155-61.

PubMed abstract

Early Start: an obstetric clinic-based, perinatal substance abuse intervention program

Author(s): Armstrong MA; Lieberman L; Carpenter DM; Gonzales VM; Usatin MS; Newman L; Escobar GJ

Qual Manag Health Care. 2001 Winter;9(2):6-15.

PubMed abstract

A randomized comparison of home visits and hospital-based group follow-up visits after early postpartum discharge

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Braveman PA; Ackerson L; Odouli R; Coleman-Phox K; Capra AM; Wong C; Lieu TA

Pediatrics. 2001 Sep;108(3):719-27.

PubMed abstract

A critical review of cost reduction in neonatal intensive care. II. Strategies for reduction

Author(s): Richardson DK; Zupancic JA; Escobar GJ; Ogino M; Pursley DM; Mugford M

J Perinatol. 2001 Mar;21(2):121-7.

PubMed abstract

SNAP-II and SNAPPE-II: Simplified newborn illness severity and mortality risk scores

Author(s): Richardson DK; Corcoran JD; Escobar GJ; Lee SK

J Pediatr. 2001 Jan;138(1):92-100.

PubMed abstract

Prediction and prevention of extreme neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in a mature health maintenance organization

Author(s): Newman TB; Xiong B; Gonzales VM; Escobar GJ

Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000 Nov;154(11):1140-7.

PubMed abstract

Neonatal sepsis workups in infants /=2000 grams at birth: A population-based study

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Li DK; Armstrong MA; Gardner MN; Folck BF; Verdi JE; Xiong B; Bergen R

Pediatrics. 2000 Aug;106(2 Pt 1):256-63.

PubMed abstract

A randomized comparison of home and clinic follow-up visits after early postpartum hospital discharge

Author(s): Lieu TA; Braveman PA; Escobar GJ; Fischer AF; Jensvold NG; Capra AM

Pediatrics. 2000 May;105(5):1058-65.

PubMed abstract

The critical role of population-based epidemiology in cost-effectiveness research

Author(s): Joffe S; Lieu TA; Escobar GJ

Pediatrics. 2000 Apr;105(4 Pt 1):862-3.

PubMed abstract

Neonatal assisted ventilation: predictors, frequency, and duration in a mature managed care organization

Author(s): Wilson A; Gardner MN; Armstrong MA; Folck BF; Escobar GJ

Pediatrics. 2000 Apr;105(4 Pt 1):822-30.

PubMed abstract

Frequency of neonatal bilirubin testing and hyperbilirubinemia in a large health maintenance organization

Author(s): Newman TB; Escobar GJ; Gonzales VM; Armstrong MA; Gardner MN; Folck BF

Pediatrics. 1999 Nov;104(5 Pt 2):1198-203.

PubMed abstract

Rehospitalization for respiratory syncytial virus among premature infants

Author(s): Joffe S; Escobar GJ; Black SB; Armstrong MA; Lieu TA

Pediatrics. 1999 Oct;104(4 Pt 1):894-9.

PubMed abstract

Cost-effectiveness of respiratory syncytial virus prophylaxis among preterm infants

Author(s): Joffe S; Ray GT; Escobar GJ; Black SB; Lieu TA

Pediatrics. 1999 Sep;104(3 Pt 1):419-27.

PubMed abstract

Rehospitalization in the first two weeks after discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Joffe S; Gardner MN; Armstrong MA; Folck BF; Carpenter DM

Pediatrics. 1999 Jul;104(1):e2.

PubMed abstract

Preventing neonatal group B streptococcal disease: cost-effectiveness in a health maintenance organization and the impact of delayed hospital discharge for newborns who received intrapartum antibiotics

Author(s): Mohle-Boetani JC; Lieu TA; Ray GT; Escobar G

Pediatrics. 1999 Apr;103(4 Pt 1):703-10.

PubMed abstract

The neonatal 'sepsis work-up': personal reflections on the development of an evidence-based approach toward newborn infections in a managed care organization

Author(s): Escobar GJ

Pediatrics. 1999 Jan;103(1 Suppl E):360-73.

PubMed abstract

Clinical outcomes and maternal perceptions of an updated model of perinatal care

Author(s): Lieu TA; Wikler C; Capra AM; Martin KE; Escobar GJ; Braveman PA

Pediatrics. 1998 Dec;102(6):1437-44.

PubMed abstract

Structured review of neonatal deaths in a managed care organisation

Author(s): Escobar GJ; Yanover M; Gardner MN; Golembeski D; Armstrong MA; Shum F; Kipnis P

Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 1998 Oct;12(4):422-36.

PubMed abstract