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Catherine Schaefer, PhD

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Kaiser Permanente Division of Research
2000 Broadway
Oakland, CA 94612

(510) 891-3400 (phone)
cathy.schaefer@kp.org
Kaiser Permanente Researcher Profiles


 

Catherine Schaefer, PhD, joined the Division of Research in 1989. Dr. Schaefer’s primary research interests include the epidemiology of psychiatric and neurologic disorders, genetic epidemiology, and early antecedents of adult chronic disease, focusing especially on bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and multiple sclerosis.

In collaboration with others at the Division of Research and scientists at UCSF, Dr. Schaefer began and heads the Research Program on Genes, Environment, and Health (RPGEH), a biobank that links biospecimens and genetic data with participant surveys and comprehensive electronic health records on a diverse cohort of 200,000 members of Kaiser Permanente in Northern California. The program serves as the foundation for the Kaiser Permanente Research Bank, which includes members from Kaiser Permanente regions across the country. The RPGEH is a resource for research on the genetic epidemiology and pharmacogenetics of many diseases and conditions.

Current Position(s):

  • Research Scientist II, Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California
  • Managing Director of Special Projects

Section Affiliations:

Primary Research Interests:

  • Epidemiology of psychiatric and neurologic disorders
  • Early antecedents of adult chronic disease
  • Genetic epidemiology

Related Website(s):

The Bipolar Sequencing Consortium for Combined Analyses and Follow-Up

The International Bipolar Sequencing Consortium brings together whole-genome and exome sequence data from multiple case-control and family studies of bipolar disorder for the purpose of investigating the genetic architecture of this condition. Data from multiple institutions and studies will be combined and harmonized to examine associations of genetic variation with bipolar disorder. De-identified exome sequence data from 483 individuals with bipolar disorder and 483 matched controls will be provided from the Multi-Ethnic Genome-wide Association Study of Bipolar Disorder at Kaiser Permanente Northern California, which will participate in analyses of the harmonized dataset from all study sites.
Investigator: Schaefer, Catherine
Funder: National Institute of Mental Health

Cognitive Function and Physical Disability in White, Black and Hispanic MS Patients

Cognitive impairment, physical disability and progressive disease are common but understudied clinical outcomes that substantially impact quality of life for individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Systematic assessment of cognitive function, disability and progression is neither routinely performed, nor results captured electronically, for most MS patients undergoing medical care. To help address this gap, we have recently developed and validated a new guided, web-based interface (ICLIC-MS) for longitudinal data collection of MS-validated measures for these important outcomes and other symptoms. We will recruit and collect comprehensive data on cognitive function, physical disability and disease progression over three years from a multi-ethnic cohort of 600 individuals with confirmed MS or clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). The study will be nested in the Kaiser Permanente (KP) MS Research Program which is part of the KP Medical Care Program in the Northern California Region.
Investigator: Schaefer, Catherine
Funder: National Multiple Sclerosis Society

Replication of PheWAS for TRPV4 Variant in Kaiser Permanente GERA Cohort

We will use the RPGEH GERA cohort to investigate associations of genetic variation (SNP genotypes) with several related conditions, including congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and possibly related phenotypes. Our first objective will be to replicate findings of association of a specific genetic variant with a number of phenotypes, including congestive heart failure, pulmonary edema, and kidney disease. We will utilize the same phenotype definitions as in the original analysis, based on algorithmic extraction of electronic medical record data. In parallel, we will pursue our second and third objectives, which focus on a more in-depth analysis of the role of genome-wide variation in congestive heart failure and kidney disease. This will involve the development of deep phenotypes for these conditions that utilize extensive characterization of these conditions using KPNC electronic records.
Investigator: Schaefer, Catherine
Funder: GlaxoSmithKline PLC

Genome-Wide Study of Hearing Impairment

More than 25% of individuals over age 65 and 50% of individuals over age 80 suffer from varying levels of age-related hearing impairment (AHRI), and adults are losing hearing at earlier ages than in the past. There is strong evidence that both genetic and environmental factors play a role in AHRI. This is a genome-wide association study that is orders of magnitude larger than previous studies in a cohort of 100,000 individuals nested in the Kaiser Research Program on Genes, Environment, and Health. This project provides an efficient and innovative opportunity to obtain a comprehensive understanding of how these genetic factors impact AHRI, which may help identify individuals at greater risk. Understanding the genetic factors will also lead to better understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms of AHRI, which may improve potential treatments.
Investigator: Schaefer, Catherine
Funder: University of California, San Francisco, Project Grant

BioBank Northern California - Regional

The KP Research Bank aims to recruit 280,000 members (200,000 in the general cohort, 30,000 in the cancer cohort, and 50,000 in the pregnancy cohort) total across all regions, to increase the overall Biobank collection to 500,000 (410,000 in the general cohort, 30,000 in the cancer cohort, and 60,000 in the pregnancy cohort). Members will be consented to provide a biospecimen and complete a survey. Regions will participate in the recruitment and other Research Bank-related efforts, including scientific, strategic and operational.
Investigator: Schaefer, Catherine
Funder: Kaiser Foundation Research Institute

Maternal prepregnant body mass and risk of schizophrenia in adult offspring

Author(s): Schaefer CA; Brown AS; Wyatt RJ; Kline J; Begg MD; Bresnahan MA; Susser ES

Schizophr Bull. 2000;26(2):275-86.

PubMed abstract

Mortality following conjugal bereavement and the effects of a shared environment

Author(s): Schaefer C; Quesenberry CP Jr; Wi S;

​Am J Epidemiol. 1995 Jun 15;141(12):1142-52.

PubMed abstract

A Large Multi-ethnic Genome-Wide Association Study of Adult Body Mass Index Identifies Novel Loci

Author(s): Hoffmann TJ; Choquet H; Yin J; Banda Y; Kvale MN; Glymour M; Schaefer C; Risch N; Jorgenson E

Genetics. 2018 Aug 14.

PubMed abstract

Incorporating machine learning approaches to assess putative environmental risk factors for multiple sclerosis

Author(s): Mowry EM; Schaefer CA; Bellesis KH; Barcellos LF; et al.

Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2018 Jun 23;24:135-141. Epub 2018-06-23.

PubMed abstract

A multiethnic genome-wide association study of primary open-angle glaucoma identifies novel risk loci

Author(s): Choquet H; Thai KK; Hoffmann TJ; Yin J; Schaefer C; Risch N; Jorgenson E; et al.

Nat Commun. 2018 Jun 11;9(1):2278. Epub 2018-06-11.

PubMed abstract

Genome-wide association analyses identify 44 risk variants and refine the genetic architecture of major depression

Author(s): Wray NR; Jorgenson E; Liu X; Wu Y; Yang J; eQTLGen; 23andMe; Schaefer C; Major Depressive Disorder Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium; et al.

Nat Genet. 2018 Apr 26.

PubMed abstract

A large electronic-health-record-based genome-wide study of serum lipids

Author(s): Hoffmann TJ; Theusch E; Haldar T; Ranatunga DK; Jorgenson E; Medina MW; Kvale MN; Kwok PY; Schaefer C; Krauss RM; Iribarren C; Risch N

Nat Genet. 2018 Mar;50(3):401-413. Epub 2018-03-05.

PubMed abstract

A large multi-ethnic genome-wide association study identifies novel genetic loci for intraocular pressure

Author(s): Choquet H; Thai KK; Yin J; Hoffmann TJ; Kvale MN; Banda Y; Schaefer C; Risch N; Nair KS; Melles R; Jorgenson E

Nat Commun. 2017 Dec 13;8(1):2108. Epub 2017-12-13.

PubMed abstract

Genetic risk factors for pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis

Author(s): Gianfrancesco MA; Stridh P; Shao X; Rhead B; Graves JS; Chitnis T; Waldman A; Lotze T; Schreiner T; Belman A; Greenberg B; Weinstock-Guttman B; Aaen G; Tillema JM; Hart J; Caillier S; Ness J; Harris Y; Rubin J; Candee M; Krupp L; Gorman M; Benson L; Rodriguez M; Mar S; Kahn I; Rose J; Roalstad S; Casper TC; Shen L; Quach H; Quach D; Hillert J; Hedstrom A; Olsson T; Kockum I; Alfredsson L; Schaefer C; Barcellos LF; Waubant E; Network of Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Centers

Mult Scler. 2017 Oct 01:1352458517733551.

PubMed abstract

The interaction between smoking and HLA genes in multiple sclerosis: replication and refinement

Author(s): Hedstr�m AK; Katsoulis M; H�ssjer O; Bomfim IL; Oturai A; Sondergaard HB; Sellebjerg F; Ullum H; Th�rner LW; Gustavsen MW; Harbo HF; Obradovic D; Gianfrancesco MA; Barcellos LF; Schaefer CA; Hillert J; Kockum I; Olsson T; Alfredsson L

Eur J Epidemiol. 2017 Jun 08.

PubMed abstract

Genetic contributors to variation in alcohol consumption vary by race/ethnicity in a large multi-ethnic genome-wide association study

Author(s): Jorgenson, E E; Thai, K K KK; Hoffmann, T J TJ; Sakoda, L C LC; Kvale, M N MN; Banda, Y Y; Schaefer, C C; Risch, N N; Mertens, J J; Weisner, C C; Choquet, H H

Molecular psychiatry. 2017 Sep ;22(9):1359-1367. Epub 2017-05-09.

PubMed abstract

​Evidence for a causal relationship between low vitamin D, high BMI, and pediatric-onset MS

Author(s): Gianfrancesco MA; Stridh P; Rhead B; Shao X; Xu E; Graves JS; Chitnis T; Waldman A; Lotze T; Schreiner T; Belman A; Greenberg B; Weinstock-Guttman B; Aaen G; Tillema JM; Hart J; Caillier S; Ness J; Harris Y; Rubin J; Candee M; Krupp L; Gorman M; Benson L; Rodriguez M; Mar S; Kahn I; Rose J; Roalstad S; Casper TC; Shen L; Quach H; Quach D; Hillert J; Bäärnhielm M; Hedstrom A; Olsson T; Kockum I; Alfredsson L; Metayer C; Schaefer C; Barcellos LF; Waubant E; Network of Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Centers

​Neurology. 2017 Apr 25;88(17):1623-1629. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000003849. Epub 2017 Mar 29.

PubMed abstract

Remote assessment of verbal memory in MS patients using the California Verbal Learning Test

Author(s): Barcellos LF; Bellesis KH; Shen L; Shao X; Chinn T; Frndak S; Drake A; Bakshi N; Marcus J; Schaefer C; Benedict RH

Mult Scler. 2017 Feb 01:1352458517694087.

PubMed abstract

Genome-wide association study of prostate-specific antigen levels identifies novel loci independent of prostate cancer.

Author(s): Hoffmann TJ; Passarelli MN; Graff RE; Emami NC; Sakoda LC; Jorgenson E; Habel LA; Shan J; Ranatunga DK; Quesenberry CP; Chao CR; Ghai NR; Aaronson D; Presti J; Nordström T; Wang Z; Berndt SI; Chanock SJ; Mosley JD; Klein RJ; Middha M; Lilja H; |Melander O; Kvale MN; Kwok PY; Schaefer C; Risch N; Van Den Eeden SK; Witte JS;

​Nat Commun. 2017 Jan 31;8:14248. doi: 10.1038/ncomms14248.

PubMed abstract

Causal Effect of Genetic Variants Associated With Body Mass Index on Multiple Sclerosis Susceptibility

Author(s): Gianfrancesco MA; Glymour MM; Walter S; Rhead B; Shao X; Shen L; Quach H; Hubbard A; Jónsdóttir I; Stefánsson K; Strid P; Hillert J; Hedström A; Olsson T; Kockum I; Schaefer C; Alfredsson L; Barcellos LF;

Am J Epidemiol. 2017 Jan 09.

PubMed abstract

The Kaiser Permanente Northern California research program on genes, environment, and health (RPGEH) pregnancy cohort; study design, methodology and baseline characteristics.

Author(s): Hedderson MM; Ferrara A; Avalos LA; Van den Eeden SK; Gunderson EP; Li DK; Altschuler A; Woo S; Rowell S; Choudhary V; Xu F; Flanagan T; Schaefer C; Croen LA;

​BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2016 Nov 29;16(1):381.

PubMed abstract

Genome-wide association analyses using electronic health records identify new loci influencing blood pressure variation

Author(s): Hoffmann TJ; Ehret GB; Nandakumar P; Ranatunga D; Schaefer C; Kwok PY; Iribarren C; Chakravarti A; Risch N

Nat Genet. 2016 Nov 14.

PubMed abstract

A Large Genome-Wide Association Study of Age-Related Hearing Impairment Using Electronic Health Records.

Author(s): Hoffmann TJ; Keats BJ; Yoshikawa N; Schaefer C; Risch N; Lustig LR;

PLoS Genet. 2016 Oct 20;12(10):e1006371. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1006371. eCollection 2016 Oct.

PubMed abstract

Mendelian randomization shows a causal effect of low vitamin D on multiple sclerosis risk

Author(s): Rhead B; Bäärnhielm M; Gianfrancesco M; Mok A; Shao X; Quach H; Shen L; Schaefer C; Link J; Gyllenberg A; Hedström AK; Olsson T; Hillert J; Kockum I; Glymour MM; Alfredsson L; Barcellos LF;

Neurol Genet. 2016 Oct;2(5):e97. Epub 2016-09-13.

PubMed abstract

The Association of Refractive Error with Glaucoma in a Multiethnic Population

Author(s): Shen L; Melles RB; Metlapally R; Barcellos L; Schaefer C; Risch N; Herrinton LJ; Wildsoet C; Jorgenson E

Ophthalmology. 2015 Aug 7.

PubMed abstract

Multiple sclerosis risk loci and disease severity in 7,125 individuals from 10 studies

Author(s): George MF; Briggs FB; Shao X; Gianfrancesco MA; Kockum I; Harbo HF; Celius EG; Bos SD; Hedstr?m A; Shen L; Bernstein A; Alfredsson L; Hillert J; Olsson T; Patsopoulos NA; De Jager PL; Oturai AB; S?ndergaard HB; Sellebjerg F; Sorensen PS; Gomez R; Caillier SJ; Cree BA; Oksenberg JR; Hauser SL; D'Alfonso S; Leone MA; Martinelli Boneschi F; Sorosina M; van der Mei I; Taylor BV; Zhou Y; Schaefer C; Barcellos LF

Neurol Genet. 2016 Aug;2(4):e87. Epub 2016-08-04.

PubMed abstract

Maternal serum cytokine levels and risk of bipolar disorder

Author(s): Cheslack-Postava K; Cremers S; Bao Y; Shen L; Schaefer CA; Brown AS

Brain Behav Immun. 2016 Jul 29.

PubMed abstract

Maternal T. gondii, offspring bipolar disorder and neurocognition

Author(s): Freedman D; Bao Y; Shen L; Schaefer CA; Brown AS

Psychiatry Res. 2016 Jul 7;243:382-389. Epub 2016-7-7.

PubMed abstract

A meta-analysis of individual participant data reveals an association between circulating levels of IGF-I and prostate cancer risk

Author(s): Travis RC; Appleby PN; Martin RM; Holly JM; Albanes D; Black A; Bueno-de-Mesquita HB; Chan JM; Chen C; Chirlaque MD; Cook MB; Deschasaux M; Donovan JL; Ferrucci L; Galan P; Giles GG; Giovannucci EL; Gunter MJ; Habel LA; Hamdy FC; Helzlsouer KJ; Hercberg S; Hoover RN; Janssen JA; Kaaks R; Kubo T; Le Marchand L; Metter EJ; Mikami K; Morris JK; Neal DE; Neuhouser ML; Ozasa K; Palli D; Platz EA; Pollak MN; Price AJ; Roobol M; Schaefer C; Schenk JM; Severi G; Stampfer MJ; Stattin P; Tamakoshi A; Tangen CM; Touvier M; Wald NJ; Weiss NS; Zeigler RG; Key TJ; Allen NE

Cancer Res. 2016 Feb 26.

PubMed abstract

Common coding variants in the HLA-DQB1 region confer susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration

Author(s): Jorgenson E; Melles RB; Hoffmann TJ; Jia X; Sakoda LC; Kvale MN; Banda Y; Schaefer C; Risch N; Shen L

Eur J Hum Genet. 2016 Jan 6.

PubMed abstract

Feasibility study for remote assessment of cognitive function in multiple sclerosis

Author(s): George MF; Holingue CB; Briggs FB; Shao X; Bellesis KH; Whitmer RA; Schaefer C; Benedict RH; Barcellos LF

J Neurol Neuromedicine. 2016;1(8):10-18.

PubMed abstract

Fetal exposure to maternal stress and risk for schizophrenia spectrum disorders among offspring: Differential influences of fetal sex

Author(s): Fineberg AM; Ellman LM; Schaefer CA; Maxwell SD; Shen L; H Chaudhury N; Cook AL; Bresnahan MA; Susser ES; Brown AS

Psychiatry Res. 2015 Dec 18.

PubMed abstract

Genotyping Informatics and Quality Control for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort

Author(s): Kvale MN; Hesselson S; Hoffmann TJ; Cao Y; Chan D; Connell S; Croen LA; Dispensa BP; Eshragh J; Finn A; Gollub J; Iribarren C; Jorgenson E; Kushi LH; Lao R; Lu Y; Ludwig D; Mathauda GK; McGuire WB; Mei G; Miles S; Mittman M; Patil M; Quesenberry CP Jr; Ranatunga D; Rowell S; Sadler M; Sakoda LC; Shapero M; Shen L; Shenoy T; Smethurst D; Somkin CP; Van Den Eeden SK; Walter L; Wan E; Webster T; Whitmer RA; Wong S; Zau C; Zhan Y; Schaefer C; Kwok PY; Risch N;

​​Genetics. 2015 Aug;200(4):1051-60. doi: 10.1534/genetics.115.178905. Epub 2015 Jun 19.

PubMed abstract

Automated Assay of Telomere Length Measurement and Informatics for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort

Author(s): Lapham K; Kvale MN; Lin J; Connell S; Croen LA; Dispensa BP; Fang L; Hesselson S; Hoffmann TJ; Iribarren C; Jorgenson E; Kushi LH; Ludwig D; Matsuguchi T; McGuire WB; Miles S; Quesenberry CP Jr; Rowell S; Sadler M; Sakoda LC; Smethurst D; Somkin CP; Van Den Eeden SK; Walter L; Whitmer RA; Kwok PY; Risch N; Schaefer C; Blackburn EH;

​Genetics. 2015 Aug;200(4):1061-72. doi: 10.1534/genetics.115.178624. Epub 2015 Jun 19.

PubMed abstract

Characterizing Race/Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort

Author(s): Banda Y; Kvale MN; Hoffmann TJ; Hesselson SE; Ranatunga D; Tang H; Sabatti C; Croen LA; Dispensa BP; Henderson M; Iribarren C; Jorgenson E; Kushi LH; Ludwig D; Olberg D; Quesenberry CP Jr; Rowell S; Sadler M; Sakoda LC; Sciortino S; Shen L; Smethurst D; Somkin CP; Van Den Eeden SK; Walter L; Whitmer RA; Kwok PY; Schaefer C; Risch N;

​Genetics. 2015 Aug;200(4):1285-95. doi: 10.1534/genetics.115.178616. Epub 2015 Jun 19.

PubMed abstract

Differences in the Genetic Susceptibility to Age-Related Macular Degeneration Clinical Subtypes

Author(s): Shen L; Hoffmann TJ; Melles RB; Sakoda LC; Kvale MN; Banda Y; Schaefer C; Risch N; Jorgenson E

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015 Jul;56(8):4290-9.

PubMed abstract

A large multi-ethnic genome-wide association study of prostate cancer identifies novel risk variants and substantial ethnic differences

Author(s): Hoffmann TJ; Van Den Eeden SK; Sakoda LC; Jorgenson E; Habel LA; Graff RE; Passarelli MN; Cario CL; Emami NC; Chao CR; Ghai NR; Shan J; Ranatunga DK; Quesenberry CP; Aaronson D; Presti J; Zhaoming W; Berndt SI; Chanock SJ; McDonnell SK; French AJ; Schaid DJ; Thibodeau SN; Li Q; Freedman ML; Penney KL; Mucci LA; Haiman CA; Henderson BE; Seminara D; Kvale MN; Kwok PY; Schaefer C; Risch N; Witte JS

Cancer Discov. 2015 Jun 1.

PubMed abstract

Genome-wide association study identifies ABCG2 (BCRP) as an allopurinol transporter and a determinant of drug response

Author(s): Wen CC; Yee SW; Liang X; Hoffmann TJ; Kvale MN; Banda Y; Jorgenson E; Schaefer C; Risch N; Giacomini KM

Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2015 May;97(5):518-25. Epub 2015-04-06.

PubMed abstract

Perinatal oxytocin increases the risk of offspring bipolar disorder and childhood cognitive impairment

Author(s): Freedman D; Brown AS; Shen L; Schaefer CA

J Affect Disord. 2015 Mar 1;173:65-72. Epub 2014-11-08.

PubMed abstract

Imputation of the Rare HOXB13 G84E Mutation and Cancer Risk in a Large Population-Based Cohort

Author(s): Hoffmann TJ; Sakoda LC; Shen L; Jorgenson E; Habel LA; Liu J; Kvale MN; Asgari MM; Banda Y; Corley D; Kushi LH; Quesenberry CP; Schaefer C; Van Den Eeden SK; Risch N; Witte JS

PLoS Genet. 2015 Jan;11(1):e1004930. Epub 2015-01-28.

PubMed abstract

Interaction between passive smoking and two HLA genes with regard to multiple sclerosis risk

Author(s): Hedström AK; Bomfim IL; Barcellos LF; Briggs F; Schaefer C; Kockum I; Olsson T; Alfredsson L;

Int J Epidemiol. 2014 Dec;43(6):1791-8. Epub 2014-10-15.

PubMed abstract

Estimating genotype error rates from high-coverage next-generation sequence data

Author(s): Wall JD; Tang LF; Zerbe B; Kvale MN; Kwok PY; Schaefer C; Risch N

Genome Res. 2014 Nov;24(11):1734-9. Epub 2014-10-10.

PubMed abstract

Seroprevalence of Aquaporin-4-IgG in a Northern California Population Representative Cohort of Multiple Sclerosis

Author(s): Pittock SJ; Lennon VA; Bakshi N; Shen L; McKeon A; Quach H; Briggs FB; Bernstein AL; Schaefer CA; Barcellos LF

JAMA Neurol. 2014 Nov;71(11):1433-6.

PubMed abstract

Obesity during childhood and adolescence increases susceptibility to multiple sclerosis after accounting for established genetic and environmental risk factors

Author(s): Gianfrancesco MA; Acuna B; Shen L; Briggs FB; Quach H; Bellesis KH; Bernstein A; Hedstrom AK; Kockum I; Alfredsson L; Olsson T; Schaefer C; Barcellos LF

Obes Res Clin Pract. 2014 Sep-Oct;8(5):e435-47. Epub 2014-03-06.

PubMed abstract

Adverse socioeconomic position during the life course is associated with multiple sclerosis

Author(s): Briggs FB; Acuña BS; Shen L; Bellesis KH; Ramsay PP; Quach H; Bernstein A; Schaefer C; Barcellos LF;

J Epidemiol Community Health. 2014 Jul;68(7):622-9. Epub 2014-02-27.

PubMed abstract

Smoking and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis; Evidence of Modification by NAT1 Variants

Author(s): Briggs FB; Acuna B; Shen L; Ramsay P; Quach H; Bernstein A; Bellesis KH; Kockum IS; Hedström AK; Alfredsson L; Olsson T; Schaefer C; Barcellos LF

Epidemiology. 2014 Jul;25(4):605-14.

PubMed abstract

Serological Documentation of Maternal Influenza Exposure and Bipolar Disorder in Adult Offspring

Author(s): Canetta SE; Bao Y; Co MD; Ennis FA; Cruz J; Terajima M; Shen L; Kellendonk C; Schaefer CA; Brown AS

Am J Psychiatry. 2014 May 1;171(5):557-63.

PubMed abstract

Interaction between adolescent obesity and HLA risk genes in the etiology of multiple sclerosis

Author(s): Hedström AK; Lima Bomfim I; Barcellos L; Gianfrancesco M; Schaefer C; Kockum I; Olsson T; Alfredsson L

Neurology. 2014 Mar 11;82(10):865-72. Epub 2014-02-05.

PubMed abstract

Fine-Mapping the Genetic Association of the Major Histocompatibility Complex in Multiple Sclerosis: HLA and Non-HLA Effects

Author(s): Patsopoulos NA; Barcellos LF; Hintzen RQ; Schaefer C; van Duijn CM; Noble JA; Raj T; IMSGC; ANZgene; Gourraud PA; Stranger BE; Oksenberg J; Olsson T; Taylor BV; Sawcer S; Hafler DA; Carrington M; De Jager PL; de Bakker PI

PLoS Genet. 2013 Nov;9(11):e1003926. Epub 2013-11-21.

PubMed abstract

Analysis of immune-related loci identifies 48 new susceptibility variants for multiple sclerosis

Author(s): International Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Consortium (IMSGC); Beecham AH; Patsopoulos NA; Xifara DK; Davis MF; Kemppinen A; Cotsapas C; Shah TS; Spencer C; Booth D; Goris A; Oturai A; Saarela J; Fontaine B; Hemmer B; Martin C; Zipp F; D'Alfonso S; Martinelli-Boneschi F; Taylor B; Harbo HF; Kockum I; Hillert J; Olsson T; Ban M; Oksenberg JR; Hintzen R; Barcellos LF; Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium ; (WTCCC; ); International IBD Genetics Consortium (IIBDGC); Agliardi C; Alfredsson L; Alizadeh M; Anderson C; Andrews R; Søndergaard HB; Baker A; Band G; Baranzini SE; Barizzone N; Barrett J; Bellenguez C; Bergamaschi L; Bernardinelli L; Berthele A; Biberacher V; Binder TM; Blackburn H; Bomfim IL; Brambilla P; Broadley S; Brochet B; Brundin L; Buck D; Butzkueven H; Caillier SJ; Camu W; Carpentier W; Cavalla P; Celius EG; Coman I; Comi G; Corrado L; Cosemans L; Cournu-Rebeix I; Cree BA; Cusi D; Damotte V; Defer G; Delgado SR; Deloukas P; di Sapio A; Dilthey AT; Donnelly P; Dubois B; Duddy M; Edkins S; Elovaara I; Esposito F; Evangelou N; Fiddes B; Field J; Franke A; Freeman C; Frohlich IY; Galimberti D; Gieger C; Gourraud PA; Graetz C; Graham A; Grummel V; Guaschino C; Hadjixenofontos A; Hakonarson H; Halfpenny C; Hall G; Hall P; Hamsten A; Harley J; Harrower T; Hawkins C; Hellenthal G; Hillier C; Hobart J; Hoshi M; Hunt SE; Jagodic M; Jelčić I; Jochim A; Kendall B; Kermode A; Kilpatrick T; Koivisto K; Konidari I; Korn T; Kronsbein H; Langford C; Larsson M; Lathrop M; Lebrun-Frenay C; Lechner-Scott J; Lee MH; Leone MA; Leppä V; Liberatore G; Lie BA; Lill CM; Lindén M; Link J; Luessi F; Lycke J; Macciardi F; Männistö S; Manrique CP; Martin R; Martinelli V; Mason D; Mazibrada G; McCabe C; Mero IL; Mescheriakova J; Moutsianas L; Myhr KM; Nagels G; Nicholas R; Nilsson P; Piehl F; Pirinen M; Price SE; Quach H; Reunanen M; Robberecht W; Robertson NP; Rodegher M; Rog D; Salvetti M; Schnetz-Boutaud NC; Sellebjerg F; Selter RC; Schaefer C; Shaunak S; Shen L; Shields S; Siffrin V; Slee M; Sorensen PS; Sorosina M; Sospedra M; Spurkland A; Strange A; Sundqvist E; Thijs V; Thorpe J; Ticca A; Tienari P; van Duijn C; Visser EM; Vucic S; Westerlind H; Wiley JS; Wilkins A; Wilson JF; Winkelmann J; Zajicek J; Zindler E; Haines JL; Pericak-Vance MA; Ivinson AJ; Stewart G; Hafler D; Hauser SL; Compston A; McVean G; De Jager P; Sawcer SJ; McCauley JL;

Nat Genet. 2013 Nov;45(11):1353-60. Epub 2013-09-29.

PubMed abstract

The effect of bariatric surgery on psychiatric course among patients with bipolar disorder

Author(s): Ahmed AT; Warton EM; Schaefer CA; Shen L; McIntyre RS

Bipolar Disord. 2013 Nov;15(7):753-63. Epub 2013-08-05.

PubMed abstract

Maternal smoking during pregnancy and bipolar disorder in offspring

Author(s): Talati A; Bao Y; Kaufman J; Shen L; Schaefer CA; Brown AS

Am J Psychiatry. 2013 Oct 1;170(10):1178-85.

PubMed abstract

Parental age and risk of bipolar disorder in offspring

Author(s): Brown A; Bao Y; McKeague I; Shen L; Schaefer C

Psychiatry Res. 2013 Aug 15;208(3):225-31. Epub 2013-06-19.

PubMed abstract

Gestational Influenza and Bipolar Disorder in Adult Offspring

Author(s): Parboosing R; Bao Y; Shen L; Schaefer CA; Brown AS

JAMA Psychiatry. 2013 Jul;70(7):677-85.

PubMed abstract

New Models for Large Prospective Studies: Is There a Better Way?

Author(s): Manolio TA; Weis BK; Cowie CC; Hoover RN; Hudson K; Kramer BS; Berg C; Collins R; Ewart W; Gaziano JM; Hirschfeld S; Marcus PM; Masys D; McCarty CA; McLaughlin J; Patel AV; Peakman T; Pedersen NL; Schaefer C; Scott JA; Sprosen T; Walport M; Collins FS

Am J Epidemiol. 2012 May 1;175(9):859-66. Epub 2012 Mar 12.

PubMed abstract

Midlife vs Late-Life Depressive Symptoms and Risk of Dementia: Differential Effects for Alzheimer Disease and Vascular Dementia

Author(s): Barnes DE; Yaffe K; Byers AL; McCormick M; Schaefer C; Whitmer RA

Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012 May;69(5):493-8.

PubMed abstract

Low maternal retinol as a risk factor for schizophrenia in adult offspring

Author(s): Bao Y; Ibram G; Blaner WS; Quesenberry CP; Shen L; McKeague IW; Schaefer CA; Susser ES; Brown AS

Schizophr Res. 2012 May;137(1-3):159-65. Epub 2012 Feb 29.

PubMed abstract

Design and coverage of high throughput genotyping arrays optimized for individuals of East Asian, African American, and Latino race/ethnicity using imputation and a novel hybrid SNP selection algorithm

Author(s): Hoffmann TJ; Zhan Y; Kvale MN; Hesselson SE; Gollub J; Iribarren C; Lu Y; Mei G; Purdy MM; Quesenberry C; Rowell S; Shapero MH; Smethurst D; Somkin CP; Van den Eeden SK; Walter L; Webster T; Whitmer RA; Finn A; Schaefer C; Kwok PY; Risch N

Genomics. 2011 Dec;98(6):422-30. Epub 2011 Aug 28.

PubMed abstract

Genetic risk and a primary role for cell-mediated immune mechanisms in multiple sclerosis

Author(s): International Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Consortium; Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2; Sawcer S; Hellenthal G; Pirinen M; Spencer CC; Patsopoulos NA; Moutsianas L; Dilthey A; Su Z; Freeman C; Hunt SE; Edkins S; Gray E; Booth DR; Potter SC; Goris A; Band G; Oturai AB; Strange A; Saarela J; Bellenguez C; Fontaine B; Gillman M; Hemmer B; Gwilliam R; Zipp F; Jayakumar A; Martin R; Leslie S; Hawkins S; Giannoulatou E; D'alfonso S; Blackburn H; Boneschi FM; Liddle J; Harbo HF; Perez ML; Spurkland A; Waller MJ; Mycko MP; Ricketts M; Comabella M; Hammond N; Kockum I; McCann OT; Ban M; Whittaker P; Kemppinen A; Weston P; Hawkins C; Widaa S; Zajicek J; Dronov S; Robertson N; Bumpstead SJ; Barcellos LF; Ravindrarajah R; Abraham R; Alfredsson L; Ardlie K; Aubin C; Baker A; Baker K; Baranzini SE; Bergamaschi L; Bergamaschi R; Bernstein A; Berthele A; Boggild M; Bradfield JP; Brassat D; Broadley SA; Buck D; Butzkueven H; Capra R; Carroll WM; Cavalla P; Celius EG; Cepok S; Chiavacci R; Clerget-Darpoux F; Clysters K; Comi G; Cossburn M; Cournu-Rebeix I; Cox MB; Cozen W; Cree BA; Cross AH; Cusi D; Daly MJ; Davis E; de Bakker PI; Debouverie M; D'hooghe MB; Dixon K; Dobosi R; Dubois B; Ellinghaus D; Elovaara I; Esposito F; Fontenille C; Foote S; Franke A; Galimberti D; Ghezzi A; Glessner J; Gomez R; Gout O; Graham C; Grant SF; Guerini FR; Hakonarson H; Hall P; Hamsten A; Hartung HP; Heard RN; Heath S; Hobart J; Hoshi M; Infante-Duarte C; Ingram G; Ingram W; Islam T; Jagodic M; Kabesch M; Kermode AG; Kilpatrick TJ; Kim C; Klopp N; Koivisto K; Larsson M; Lathrop M; Lechner-Scott JS; Leone MA; Leppa V; Liljedahl U; Bomfim IL; Lincoln RR; Link J; Liu J; Lorentzen AR; Lupoli S; Macciardi F; Mack T; Marriott M; Martinelli V; Mason D; McCauley JL; Mentch F; Mero IL; Mihalova T; Montalban X; Mottershead J; Myhr KM; Naldi P; Ollier W; Page A; Palotie A; Pelletier J; Piccio L; Pickersgill T; Piehl F; Pobywajlo S; Quach HL; Ramsay PP; Reunanen M; Reynolds R; Rioux JD; Rodegher M; Roesner S; Rubio JP; Ruckert IM; Salvetti M; Salvi E; Santaniello A; Schaefer CA; Schreiber S; Schulze C; Scott RJ; Sellebjerg F; Selmaj KW; Sexton D; Shen L; Simms-Acuna B; Skidmore S; Sleiman PM; Smestad C; Sorensen PS; Sondergaard HB; Stankovich J; Strange RC; Sulonen AM; Sundqvist E; Syvanen AC; Taddeo F; Taylor B; Blackwell JM; Tienari P; Bramon E; Tourbah A; Brown MA; Tronczynska E; Casas JP; Tubridy N; Corvin A; Vickery J; Jankowski J; Villoslada P; Markus HS; Wang K; Mathew CG; Wason J; Palmer CN; Wichmann HE; Plomin R; Willoughby E; Rautanen A; Winkelmann J; Wittig M; Trembath RC; Yaouanq J; Viswanathan AC; Zhang H; Wood NW; Zuvich R; Deloukas P; Langford C; Duncanson A; Oksenberg JR; Pericak-Vance MA; Haines JL; Olsson T; Hillert J; Ivinson AJ; De Jager PL; Peltonen L; Stewart GJ; Hafler DA; Hauser SL; McVean G; Donnelly P; Compston A

Nature. 2011 Aug 10;476(7359):214-9.

PubMed abstract

Next generation genome-wide association tool: design and coverage of a high-throughput European-optimized SNP array.

Author(s): Hoffmann TJ; Kvale MN; Hesselson SE; Zhan Y; Aquino C; Cao Y; Cawley S; Chung E; Connell S; Eshragh J; Ewing M; Gollub J; Henderson M; Hubbell E; Iribarren C; Kaufman J; Lao RZ; Lu Y; Ludwig D; Mathauda GK; McGuire W; Mei G; Miles S; Purdy MM; Quesenberry C; Ranatunga D; Rowell S; Sadler M; Shapero MH; Shen L; Shenoy TR; Smethurst D; Van den Eeden SK; Walter L; Wan E; Wearley R; Webster T; Wen CC; Weng L; Whitmer RA; Williams A; Wong SC; Zau C; Finn A; Schaefer C; Kwok PY; Risch N.;

​​Genomics. 2011 Aug;98(2):79-89. doi: 10.1016/j.ygeno.2011.04.005. Epub 2011 Apr 30.

PubMed abstract

Maternal serum docosahexaenoic acid and schizophrenia spectrum disorders in adult offspring

Author(s): Harper KN; Hibbeln JR; Deckelbaum R; Quesenberry CP Jr; Schaefer CA; Brown AS

Schizophr Res. 2011 May;128(1-3):30-6. Epub 2011 Feb 15.

PubMed abstract

Executive Function in Preschool Children: Test-Retest Reliability

Author(s): Beck DM; Schaefer C; Pang K; Carlson SM

J Cogn Dev. 2011 Jan 1;12(2):169-193.

PubMed abstract

Structural brain alterations in schizophrenia following fetal exposure to the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8

Author(s): Ellman LM; Deicken RF; Vinogradov S; Kremen WS; Poole JH; Kern DM; Tsai WY; Schaefer CA; Brown AS

Schizophr Res. 2010 Aug;121(1-3):46-54. Epub 2010 Jun 9.

PubMed abstract

Is pregnancy after breast cancer safe?

Author(s): Kranick JA; Schaefer C; Rowell S; Desai M; Petrek JA; Hiatt RA; Senie RT

Breast J. 2010 Jul-Aug;16(4):404-11. Epub 2010 May 26.

PubMed abstract

Cognitive decline in schizophrenia from childhood to midlife: a 33-year longitudinal birth cohort study

Author(s): Kremen WS; Vinogradov S; Poole JH; Schaefer CA; Deicken RF; Factor-Litvak P; Brown AS

Schizophr Res. 2010 May;118(1-3):1-5. Epub 2010 Feb 12.

PubMed abstract

Prenatal exposure to maternal infection and executive dysfunction in adult schizophrenia

Author(s): Brown AS; Vinogradov S; Kremen WS; Poole JH; Deicken RF; Penner JD; McKeague IW; Kochetkova A; Kern D; Schaefer CA

Am J Psychiatry. 2009 Jun;166(6):683-90. Epub 2009 Apr 15.

PubMed abstract

Prenatal infection and cavum septum pellucidum in adult schizophrenia

Author(s): Brown AS; Deicken RF; Vinogradov S; Kremen WS; Poole JH; Penner JD; Kochetkova A; Kern D; Schaefer CA

Schizophr Res. 2009 Mar;108(1-3):285-7. Epub 2009 Jan 8.

PubMed abstract

Insulin-like growth factors, their binding proteins, and prostate cancer risk: analysis of individual patient data from 12 prospective studies

Author(s): Roddam AW; Allen NE; Appleby P; Key TJ; Ferrucci L; Carter HB; Metter EJ; Chen C; Weiss NS; Fitzpatrick A; Hsing AW; Lacey JV Jr; Helzlsouer K; Rinaldi S; Riboli E; Kaaks R; Janssen JA; Wildhagen MF; Schroder FH; Platz EA; Pollak M; Giovannucci E; Schaefer C; Quesenberry CP Jr; Vogelman JH; Severi G; English DR; Giles GG; Stattin P; Hallmans G; Johansson M; Chan JM; Gann P; Oliver SE; Holly JM; Donovan J; Meyer F; Bairati I; Galan P

Ann Intern Med. 2008 Oct 7;149(7):461-71, W83-8.

PubMed abstract

Maternal iron deficiency and the risk of schizophrenia in offspring

Author(s): Insel BJ; Schaefer CA; McKeague IW; Susser ES; Brown AS

Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008 Oct;65(10):1136-44.

PubMed abstract

Congenital anomalies and early functional impairments in a prospective birth cohort: risk of schizophrenia-spectrum disorder in adulthood

Author(s): Waddington JL; Brown AS; Lane A; Schaefer CA; Goetz RR; Bresnahan M; Susser ES

Br J Psychiatry. 2008 Apr;192(4):264-7.

PubMed abstract

Race and risk of schizophrenia in a US birth cohort: another example of health disparity?

Author(s): Bresnahan M; Begg MD; Brown A; Schaefer C; Sohler N; Insel B; Vella L; Susser E

Int J Epidemiol. 2007 Aug;36(4):751-8. Epub 2007 Apr 17.

PubMed abstract

The pharmacogenetics research network: from SNP discovery to clinical drug response

Author(s): Giacomini KM; Brett CM; Altman RB; Benowitz NL; Dolan ME; Flockhart DA; Johnson JA; Hayes DF; Klein T; Krauss RM; Kroetz DL; McLeod HL; Nguyen AT; Ratain MJ; Relling MV; Reus V; Roden DM; Schaefer CA; Shuldiner AR; Skaar T; Tantisira K; Tyndale RF; Wang L; Weinshilboum RM; Weiss ST; Zineh I; Pharmacogenetics Research Network

Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Mar;81(3):328-45.

PubMed abstract

Elevated prenatal homocysteine levels as a risk factor for schizophrenia

Author(s): Brown AS; Bottiglieri T; Schaefer CA; Quesenberry CP Jr; Liu L; Bresnahan M; Susser ES

Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007 Jan;64(1):31-9.

PubMed abstract

Maternal-fetal blood incompatibility and the risk of schizophrenia in offspring

Author(s): Insel BJ; Brown AS; Bresnahan MA; Schaefer CA; Susser ES

Schizophr Res. 2005 Dec 15;80(2-3):331-42. Epub 2005 Jul 11.

PubMed abstract

Response to Zhang et al. (2005): loss-of-function mutation in tryptophan hydroxylase-2 identified in unipolar major depression. Neuron 45, 11-16

Author(s): Glatt CE; Carlson E; Taylor TR; Risch N; Reus VI; Schaefer CA

Neuron. 2005 Dec 8;48(5):704-5; author reply 705-6.

PubMed abstract

Maternal exposure to toxoplasmosis and risk of schizophrenia in adult offspring

Author(s): Brown AS; Schaefer CA; Quesenberry CP Jr; Liu L; Babulas VP; Susser ES

Am J Psychiatry. 2005 Apr;162(4):767-73.

PubMed abstract

Treatment with stimulants among youths in a large California health plan

Author(s): Habel LA; Schaefer CA; Levine P; Bhat AK; Elliott G

J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2005 Feb;15(1):62-7.

PubMed abstract

Detection of postpartum depression and anxiety in a large health plan

Author(s): Coates AO; Schaefer CA; Alexander JL

J Behav Health Serv Res. 2004 Apr-Jun;31(2):117-33.

PubMed abstract

Natural variation in human membrane transporter genes reveals evolutionary and functional constraints

Author(s): Leabman MK; Huang CC; DeYoung J; Carlson EJ; Taylor TR; de la Cruz M; Johns SJ; Stryke D; Kawamoto M; Urban TJ; Kroetz DL; Ferrin TE; Clark AG; Risch N; Herskowitz I; Giacomini KM; Pharmacogenetics Of Membrane Transporters Investigators

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 May 13;100(10):5896-901. Epub 2003 Apr 28.

PubMed abstract

The design of the prenatal determinants of schizophrenia study

Author(s): Susser ES; Schaefer CA; Brown AS; Begg MD; Wyatt RJ

Schizophr Bull. 2000;26(2):257-73.

PubMed abstract

Incidence and cumulative risk of treated schizophrenia in the prenatal determinants of schizophrenia study

Author(s): Bresnahan MA; Brown AS; Schaefer CA; Begg MD; Wyatt RJ; Susser ES

Schizophr Bull. 2000;26(2):297-308.

PubMed abstract

Maternal prepregnant body mass and risk of schizophrenia in adult offspring

Author(s): Schaefer CA; Brown AS; Wyatt RJ; Kline J; Begg MD; Bresnahan MA; Susser ES

Schizophr Bull. 2000;26(2):275-86.

PubMed abstract

Role of a psychiatric outcome study in a large scale quality improvement project

Author(s): Walter LJ; Schaefer C; Albright L; Parthasarathy S; Hunkeler EM; Westphal J; Williams M

Eval Program Plann. 1999 May;22(2):233-43.

PubMed abstract

Mortality following conjugal bereavement and the effects of a shared environment

Author(s): Schaefer C; Quesenberry CP Jr; Wi S;

​Am J Epidemiol. 1995 Jun 15;141(12):1142-52.

PubMed abstract