Despite HPV vaccines, screening will remain central for decades to control cervical cancer. Recently, HPV testing alone or with cytology was introduced in the US as an alternative to cytology screening. However, most HPV infections are harmless and additional tests are required to identify women at highest cancer risk. With three (3) options for primary screening, and without clear strategies for triage of screen-positive women, there is great confusion about the best approach. NCI plans to evaluate performance of several promising biomarkers head-to-head in a screening population. Integral to these studies are cervical specimens and clinical data among women screened. KPNC will continue a collaboration with NCI to obtain and store discarded HPV and cytology specimens as well as collect the risk factor and clinical outcome data for a population-based sample of women in the cohort.