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Impact of a scalable training program on the quality of colonoscopy performance and risk of post-colonoscopy colorectal cancer

Endoscopist adenoma detection rates (ADRs) vary widely and are associated with patients' risk of postcolonoscopy colorectal cancers (PCCRCs). However, few scalable physician-directed interventions demonstrably both improve ADR and reduce PCCRC risk. Among patients undergoing colonoscopy, we evaluated the influence of…

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Blood donor, component, and recipient-specific factors associated with venous thromboembolism in transfused hospitalized adult patients: Data from the recipient epidemiology and donor evaluation Study-III (REDS-III)

Growing evidence suggests multiple pathophysiological mechanisms linking red blood cells (RBC) transfusions to thrombosis. This study examined blood donor, component, and recipient factors which may be associated with thromboembolic outcomes following RBC transfusion. We utilized the Recipient Epidemiology Donor Evaluation…

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The prospective association of hyperandrogenism, oligomenorrhea and polycystic ovary syndrome with incident gestational diabetes: The coronary artery risk development in young adults women’s study

In this 28-year prospective study of 455 women (mean age: 26 years), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) was associated with a 2.6-fold elevated risk of gestational diabetes (GDM). However, hyperandrogenism or oligomenorrhea in the absence of PCOS was not associated with GDM.

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Early Estimates of Bivalent mRNA Vaccine Effectiveness in Preventing COVID-19-Associated Emergency Department or Urgent Care Encounters and Hospitalizations Among Immunocompetent Adults – VISION Network, Nine States, September-November 2022

During June-October 2022, the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.5 sublineage accounted for most of the sequenced viral genomes in the United States, with further Omicron sublineage diversification through November 2022.* Bivalent mRNA vaccines contain an ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strain component plus an updated…

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Associations between antidepressant use patterns during pregnancy and birth outcomes among periconception antidepressant users

Little is known about antidepressant medication use patterns during pregnancy among periconception (before and immediately following conception) users. Additionally, the associations between these patterns and birth outcomes is unclear, after taking into account underlying depression severity. This study describes patterns…

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Human Immunodeficiency Virus Status, Tenofovir Exposure, and the Risk of Poor Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) Outcomes: Real-World Analysis From 6 United States Cohorts Before Vaccine Rollout

People with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PWH) may be at increased risk for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes. We examined HIV status and COVID-19 severity, and whether tenofovir, used by PWH for HIV treatment and people without HIV (PWoH)…

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Practice Patterns and Outcomes Associated With Anticoagulation Use Following Sepsis Hospitalizations With New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation

Practice patterns and outcomes associated with the use of oral anticoagulation for arterial thromboembolism prevention following a hospitalization with new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) during sepsis are unclear. Retrospective, observational cohort study of patients ≥40 years of age discharged alive following…

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Protection from COVID-19 mRNA vaccination and prior SARS-CoV-2 infection against COVID-19-associated encounters in adults during Delta and Omicron predominance

Data assessing protection conferred from COVID-19 mRNA vaccination and/or prior SARS-CoV-2 infection during Delta and Omicron predominance periods in the U.S. are limited. This cohort study included persons ≥18 years who had ≥1 healthcare encounter across four health systems and…

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High-dimensional propensity scores for empirical covariate selection in secondary database studies: Planning, implementation, and reporting

Real-world evidence used for regulatory, payer, and clinical decision-making requires principled epidemiology in design and analysis, applying methods to minimize confounding given the lack of randomization. One technique to deal with potential confounding is propensity score (PS) analysis, which allows…

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A prospective study of lifestyle factors and bone health in breast cancer patients who received aromatase inhibitors in an integrated healthcare setting

Fracture and osteoporosis are known side effects of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) for postmenopausal hormone receptor positive (HR+) breast cancer (BC) patients. How modifiable lifestyle factors impact fracture risk in these patients is relatively unknown. We conducted a prospective cohort study…

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Vaccine effectiveness against influenza-associated urgent care, emergency department, and hospital encounters during the 2021-2022 season, VISION Network

Following historically low influenza activity during the 2020-2021 season, the United States saw an increase in influenza circulating during the 2021-2022 season. Most viruses belonged to the influenza A(H3N2) 3C.2a1b 2a.2 subclade. We conducted a test-negative case-control analysis among adults…

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MiXcan: a framework for cell-type-aware transcriptome-wide association studies with an application to breast cancer

Human bulk tissue samples comprise multiple cell types with diverse roles in disease etiology. Conventional transcriptome-wide association study approaches predict genetically regulated gene expression at the tissue level, without considering cell-type heterogeneity, and test associations of predicted tissue-level expression with…

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A mid-level health manager intervention to promote uptake of isoniazid preventive therapy among people with HIV in Uganda: a cluster randomised trial.

BACKGROUND: Despite longstanding guidelines endorsing isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for people with HIV, uptake is low across sub-Saharan Africa. Mid-level health managers oversee IPT programmes nationally; interventions aimed at this group have not been tested. We aimed to establish whether…

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Early Estimates of Bivalent mRNA Vaccine Effectiveness in Preventing COVID-19-Associated Emergency Department or Urgent Care Encounters and Hospitalizations Among Immunocompetent Adults – VISION Network, Nine States, September-November 2022

During June-October 2022, the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.5 sublineage accounted for most of the sequenced viral genomes in the United States, with further Omicron sublineage diversification through November 2022.* Bivalent mRNA vaccines contain an ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strain component plus an updated…

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High-sensitivity troponin I is associated with cardiovascular outcomes but not with breast arterial calcification among postmenopausal women

Prior studies support the utility of high sensitivity troponin I (hsTnI) for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk stratification among asymptomatic populations; however, only two prior studies examined women separately. The association between hsTnI and breast arterial calcification is unknown. Cohort study…

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Urinary Phenols in Early to Mid-Pregnancy and Risk of Gestational Diabetes: A Longitudinal Study in a Multiracial Cohort

Environmental phenols are ubiquitous endocrine disruptors and putatively diabetogenic. However, data during pregnancy are scant. We investigated the prospective associations between pregnancy phenol concentrations and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk. In a nested matched case-control study of 111 individuals with…

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Retrospective cohort study to assess the association between treatment with tocilizumab and mortality among mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19

Assess the association between tocilizumab administration and clinical outcomes among mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Retrospective cohort study. Large integrated health system with 9 million members in California, USA. 4185 Kaiser Permanente members hospitalised with COVID-19 pneumonia requiring invasive mechanical…

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Prescribing for different antibiotic classes across age groups in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California population in association with influenza incidence, 2010-2018

There is limited information on the volume of antibiotic prescribing that is influenza-associated, resulting from influenza infections and their complications (such as streptococcal pharyngitis). We estimated that for the Kaiser Permanente Northern California population during 2010-2018, 3.4% (2.8%-4%) of all…

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Effectiveness of COVID-19 mRNA Vaccines Against COVID-19-Associated Hospitalizations Among Immunocompromised Adults During SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Predominance – VISION Network, 10 States, December 2021-August 2022

Persons with moderate-to-severe immunocompromising conditions might have reduced protection after COVID-19 vaccination, compared with persons without immunocompromising conditions (1-3). On August 13, 2021, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended that adults with immunocompromising conditions receive an expanded primary…

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Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics associated with never-smoking status in patients with lung cancer: findings from a large integrated health system

Evidence is limited characterizing sociodemographically diverse patient populations with lung cancer in relation to smoking status. In a cross-sectional analysis of adults diagnosed with lung cancer at ages ≥30 years from 2007-2018 within an integrated healthcare system, overall and sex-specific…

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Estimation of COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine Effectiveness Against Medically Attended COVID-19 in Pregnancy During Periods of Delta and Omicron Variant Predominance in the United States

Pregnant people are at high risk for severe COVID-19 but were excluded from mRNA vaccine trials; data on COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness (VE) are needed. To evaluate the estimated effectiveness of mRNA vaccination against medically attended COVID-19 among pregnant people during…

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Effectiveness of 2, 3, and 4 COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine Doses Among Immunocompetent Adults During Periods when SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 and BA.2/BA.2.12.1 Sublineages Predominated – VISION Network, 10 States, December 2021-June 2022

The Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, was first identified in the United States in November 2021, with the BA.1 sublineage (including BA.1.1) causing the largest surge in COVID-19 cases to date. Omicron sublineages BA.2 and…

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Reach, acceptability, and perceived success of a telehealth diabetes prevention program among racially and ethnically diverse patients with gestational diabetes: the GEM cluster-randomized trial

Patients with gestational diabetes mellitus and from racial/ethnic minority groups face disproportionate risk for type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle interventions, if accessible and acceptable to diverse patients, could advance diabetes prevention and mitigate racial/ethnic disparities. Here we describe overall and race/ethnicity-specific…

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Association Between Intrauterine Device Type and Risk of Perforation and Device Expulsion: Results From the APEX-IUD Study

Intrauterine devices, including levonorgestrel-releasing and copper devices, are highly effective long-acting reversible contraceptives. The potential risks associated with intrauterine devices are low and include uterine perforation and device expulsion. This study aimed to evaluate the risk of perforation and expulsion…

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Association Between Menorrhagia and Risk of Intrauterine Device-Related Uterine Perforation and Device Expulsion: Results from the APEX-IUD Study

Intrauterine devices are effective instruments for contraception, and 1 levonorgestrel-releasing device is also indicated for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia). To compare the incidence of intrauterine device expulsion and uterine perforation in women with and without a diagnosis…

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A Web-Based mHealth Intervention With Telephone Support to Increase Physical Activity Among Pregnant Patients With Overweight or Obesity: Feasibility Randomized Controlled Trial

Pregnant patients with overweight or obesity are at high risk for perinatal complications. Excess gestational weight gain (GWG) further exacerbates this risk. Mobile health (mHealth) lifestyle interventions that leverage technology to facilitate self-monitoring and provide just-in-time feedback may motivate behavior…

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Risk of severe clinical outcomes among persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection with differing levels of vaccination during widespread Omicron (B.1.1.529) and Delta (B.1.617.2) variant circulation in Northern California: A retrospective cohort study

The incidence of and risk factors for severe clinical outcomes with the Omicron (B.1.1.529) SARS-CoV-2 variant have not been well-defined. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to assess risks of severe clinical outcomes within 21 days after SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis in…

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Uptake of guideline-recommended postpartum diabetes screening among diverse women with gestational diabetes: associations with patient factors in an integrated health system in USA

Clinical guidelines urge timely postpartum screening for diabetes among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), yet patient factors associated with screening uptake remain unclear. We aimed to identify patient factors associated with completed postpartum diabetes screening (2-hour oral glucose tolerance…

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Exploratory analysis of novel electronic health record variables for quantification of healthcare delivery strain, prediction of mortality, and prediction of imminent discharge

To explore the relationship between novel, time-varying predictors for healthcare delivery strain (eg, counts of patient orders per hour) and imminent discharge and in-hospital mortality. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from adults hospitalized at 21 Kaiser Permanente…

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Joint associations between neighborhood walkability, greenness, and particulate air pollution on cardiovascular mortality among adults with a history of stroke or acute myocardial infarction

Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Neighborhood walkability and greenness may also be associated with CVD, but there is limited evidence on their joint or interacting effects with PM2.5. Cox proportional hazard models…

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Effectiveness of Homologous and Heterologous COVID-19 Booster Doses Following 1 Ad.26.COV2.S (Janssen [Johnson & Johnson]) Vaccine Dose Against COVID-19-Associated Emergency Department and Urgent Care Encounters and Hospitalizations Among Adults – VISION Network, 10 States, December 2021-March 2022

CDC recommends that all persons aged ≥18 years receive a single COVID-19 vaccine booster dose ≥2 months after receipt of an Ad.26.COV2.S (Janssen [Johnson & Johnson]) adenovirus vector-based primary series vaccine; a heterologous COVID-19 mRNA vaccine is preferred over a…

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Effectiveness of COVID-19 Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccination in Preventing COVID-19-Associated Emergency Department and Urgent Care Encounters and Hospitalizations Among Nonimmunocompromised Children and Adolescents Aged 5-17 Years – VISION Network, 10 States, April 2021-January 2022

The efficacy of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine against laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 exceeded 90% in clinical trials that included children and adolescents aged 5-11, 12-15, and 16-17 years (1-3). Limited real-world data on 2-dose mRNA vaccine effectiveness (VE) in persons aged 12-17…

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Antibiotic prescribing across age groups in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California population in association with different diagnoses, and with influenza incidence, 2010-2018

There is limited information on the volume of antibiotic prescribing that is influenza-associated, resulting from influenza infections and their complications (such as streptococcal pharyngitis and otitis media). Here, we estimated age/diagnosis-specific proportions of antibiotic prescriptions (fills) for the Kaiser Permanente…

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Waning 2-Dose and 3-Dose Effectiveness of mRNA Vaccines Against COVID-19-Associated Emergency Department and Urgent Care Encounters and Hospitalizations Among Adults During Periods of Delta and Omicron Variant Predominance – VISION Network, 10 States, August 2021-January 2022

CDC recommends that all persons aged ≥12 years receive a booster dose of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine ≥5 months after completion of a primary mRNA vaccination series and that immunocompromised persons receive a third primary dose.* Waning of vaccine protection after…

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Effectiveness of a Third Dose of mRNA Vaccines Against COVID-19-Associated Emergency Department and Urgent Care Encounters and Hospitalizations Among Adults During Periods of Delta and Omicron Variant Predominance – VISION Network, 10 States, August 2021-January 2022

Estimates of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine effectiveness (VE) have declined in recent months (1,2) because of waning vaccine induced immunity over time,* possible increased immune evasion by SARS-CoV-2 variants (3), or a combination of these and other factors. CDC recommends that…

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TP53 Gain-of-Function and Non-Gain-of-Function Mutations Are Differentially Associated With Sidedness-Dependent Prognosis in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

To examine the association of gain-of-function (GOF) and non-gain-of-function (non-GOF) TP53 mutations with prognosis of metastatic right-sided (RCC) versus left-sided colorectal cancer (LCC). This cohort study included patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) who had next-generation sequencing performed from November…

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Rates of cardiovascular events among patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis in an integrated health care system: A retrospective cohort study

Patients with versus without atopic dermatitis may have a greater risk of cardiovascular events, and the risk increases with severity of atopic dermatitis. The incidence of cardiovascular events in the population of patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis is largely unknown.…

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Parent-focused prevention of adolescent health risk behavior: Study protocol for a multisite cluster-randomized trial implemented in pediatric primary care

Evidence-based parenting interventions play a crucial role in the sustained reduction of adolescent behavioral health concerns. Guiding Good Choices (GGC) is a 5-session universal anticipatory guidance curriculum for parents of early adolescents that has been shown to reduce substance use,…

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Laboratory-Confirmed COVID-19 Among Adults Hospitalized with COVID-19-Like Illness with Infection-Induced or mRNA Vaccine-Induced SARS-CoV-2 Immunity – Nine States, January-September 2021

Previous infection with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) or COVID-19 vaccination can provide immunity and protection from subsequent SARS-CoV-2 infection and illness. CDC used data from the VISION Network* to examine hospitalizations in adults with COVID-19-like illness and compared…

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Effectiveness of 2-Dose Vaccination with mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines Against COVID-19-Associated Hospitalizations Among Immunocompromised Adults – Nine States, January-September 2021

Immunocompromised persons, defined as those with suppressed humoral or cellular immunity resulting from health conditions or medications, account for approximately 3% of the U.S. adult population (1). Immunocompromised adults are at increased risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes (2) and might…

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Lifestyle-related education and counseling resource utilization and cardiovascular biomarkers in midlife women with low physical activity

Health plan-based resources are promising avenues for decreasing cardiovascular disease risk. This study examined associations of lifestyle-related resource utilization within a healthcare delivery system and cardiovascular biomarkers among midlife women with low physical activity. Midlife women (45-55 years old) with

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COVID-19 Vaccination Coverage Among Insured Persons Aged ≥16 Years, by Race/Ethnicity and Other Selected Characteristics – Eight Integrated Health Care Organizations, United States, December 14, 2020-May 15, 2021

COVID-19 vaccination is critical to ending the COVID-19 pandemic. Members of minority racial and ethnic groups have experienced disproportionate COVID-19-associated morbidity and mortality (1); however, COVID-19 vaccination coverage is lower in these groups (2). CDC used data from CDC's Vaccine…

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Mediating Effects of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors on the Association Between Maternal Race-Ethnicity and Cesarean Delivery Among Low-Risk Women

Background: While racial-ethnic disparities in cesarean delivery rates among nulliparous women delivering a term singleton in the vertex position (NTSV) exist, it remains unclear the extent to which potentially modifiable maternal cardiometabolic risk factors (obesity, maternal hyperglycemia and hypertensive disorders)…

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Separating Algorithms from Questions and Causal Inference with Unmeasured Exposures: An Application to Birth Cohort Studies of Early BMI Rebound

Observational studies reporting on adjusted associations between childhood body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) rebound and subsequent cardiometabolic outcomes have often not paid explicit attention to causal inference, including definition of a target causal effect and assumptions for unbiased…

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mHealth Mindfulness Intervention for Women with Moderate-to-Moderately-Severe Antenatal Depressive Symptoms: a Pilot Study Within an Integrated Health Care System

Traditional mindfulness-based interventions have been shown to reduce depression symptoms in pregnant women, although in-person classes may pose significant accessibility barriers, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. Mobile technology offers greater convenience, but little is known regarding the efficacy of self-paced,…

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Recruitment strategies and design considerations in a trial of resistance training to prevent dose-limiting toxicities in colon cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

Low muscle is associated with an increased risk of chemotherapy-related dose limiting toxicities (DLT) in cancer patients. Resistance training (RT) improves muscle mass; however, the effects of RT on preventing DLTs and dose reductions in colon cancer patients has not…

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Inpatient-outpatient shared electronic health records: telemedicine and laboratory follow-up after hospital discharge

Continuity of patient information across settings can improve transitions after hospital discharge, but outpatient clinicians often have limited access to complete information from recent hospitalizations. We examined whether providers' timely access to clinical information through shared inpatient-outpatient electronic health records…

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Feasibility of Measuring Preferences for Chemotherapy Among Early-Stage Breast Cancer Survivors Using a Direct Rank Ordering Multicriteria Decision Analysis Versus a Time Trade-Off

Chemotherapy is increasingly a preference-based choice among women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer. Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a promising but underutilized method to facilitate shared decision making. We explored the feasibility of conducting an MCDA using direct rank ordering…

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History of Early Childhood Infections and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Risk Among Children in a U.S. Integrated Health Care System

Surrogate measures of infectious exposures have been consistently associated with lower childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) risk. However, recent reports have suggested that physician-diagnosed early-life infections increase ALL risk, thereby raising the possibility that stronger responses to infections might promote…

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Pilot pragmatic randomized trial of mHealth mindfulness-based intervention for advanced cancer patients and their informal caregivers

Assess the feasibility of conducting a cluster randomized trial (RCT) comparing technology-delivered mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) programs against a waitlist control arm targeting advanced cancer patients and their informal caregivers. Two-arm cluster RCT within Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC). We recruited…

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A telehealth lifestyle intervention to reduce excess gestational weight gain in pregnant women with overweight or obesity (GLOW): a randomised, parallel-group, controlled trial

Excess gestational weight gain (GWG) among women with overweight or obesity synergistically increases their already elevated risk of having gestational diabetes, a caesarean delivery, a large for gestational age infant, and post-partum weight retention, and increases their child's risk of…

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Association of donor age, body mass index, hemoglobin, and smoking status with in-hospital mortality and length of stay among red blood cell-transfused recipients

Recent publications have reported conflicting findings regarding associations of blood donor demographics and mortality of transfused patients. We hypothesized that the analysis of additional donor characteristics and consideration of alternative outcomes might provide insight into these disparate results. We analyzed…

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Enhanced Recovery After Surgery to Change Process Measures and Reduce Opioid Use After Cesarean Delivery: A Quality Improvement Initiative

To evaluate implementation of an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) program for patients undergoing elective cesarean delivery by comparing opioid exposure, multimodal analgesia use, and other process and outcome measures before and after implementation. An ERAS program was implemented among…

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Targeted learning with daily EHR data

Electronic health records (EHR) data provide a cost- and time-effective opportunity to conduct cohort studies of the effects of multiple time-point interventions in the diverse patient population found in real-world clinical settings. Because the computational cost of analyzing EHR data…

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Telomere length and socioeconomic status at neighborhood and individual levels among 80,000 adults in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging cohort

Telomere length (TL) may serve as a biologic marker of aging. We examined neighborhood and individual-level socioeconomic status (SES) in relation to TL. The study included 84,996 non-Hispanic white subjects from the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging…

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Reproductive Factors and Mammographic Density: Associations Among 24,840 Women and Comparison of Studies Using Digitized Film-Screen Mammography and Full-Field Digital Mammography

Breast density is a modifiable factor that is strongly associated with breast cancer risk. We sought to understand the influence of newer technologies of full-field digital mammography (FFDM) on breast density research and to determine whether results are comparable across…

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Gestational weight gain and optimal wellness (GLOW): rationale and methods for a randomized controlled trial of a lifestyle intervention among pregnant women with overweight or obesity

Excess gestational weight gain (GWG) is common among women with overweight or obesity, increasing their risks for pregnancy complications, delivering a large infant, and postpartum weight retention. To date, only intensive interventions have had success and few interventions have been…

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Privacy-Protecting Analytical Methods Using Only Aggregate-Level Information to Conduct Multivariable-Adjusted Analysis in Distributed Data Networks

Distributed data networks enable large-scale epidemiologic studies, but protecting privacy while adequately adjusting for a large number of covariates continues to pose methodological challenges. Using 2 empirical examples within a 3-site distributed data network, we tested combinations of 3 aggregate-level…

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Comparative effectiveness of treatment of actinic keratosis with topical fluorouracil and imiquimod in the prevention of keratinocyte carcinoma: a cohort study

The effectiveness of 5-fluorouracil compared with that of imiquimod for preventing keratinocyte carcinoma is unknown. To compare the effectiveness of 5-fluorouracil and that of imiquimod in preventing keratinocyte carcinoma in a real-world practice setting. We identified 5700 subjects who filled…

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Study of Longevity in Diabetes (SOLID)

Type 1 diabetes is a complicated disease requiring constant adherence to glycemic targets and meticulous attention and vigilance of blood sugar. Individuals with type 1 diabetes are living longer than ever before, yet very little is known about how this…

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Life After 90

Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias affect 15 percent of those aged 65 and older, by age 90 and older this number increases to a startling 40 to 50 percent. The oldest-old, people aged 90 and older, are the fastest growing…

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Automated symptom and treatment side effect monitoring for improved quality of life among adults with diabetic peripheral neuropathy in primary care: a pragmatic, cluster, randomized, controlled trial

To evaluate the effectiveness of automated symptom and side effect monitoring on quality of life among individuals with symptomatic diabetic peripheral neuropathy. We conducted a pragmatic, cluster randomized controlled trial (July 2014 to July 2016) within a large healthcare system.…

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Study on the Association of Uterine Perforation and IUD expulsion With Breastfeeding Status at the Time of IUD insertion and Postpartum Timing of IUD Insertion in Electronic Medical Record Databases – A Post-marketing Requirement for Mirena

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has required Bayer AG to conduct a post-marketing study in the U.S. to determine the incidence of uterine perforation and IUD expulsion by type of intrauterine device (IUD) used. The goal of this study…

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Examining the role of access to care: Racial/ethnic differences in receipt of resection for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer among integrated system members and non-members

To examine the role of uniform access to care in reducing racial/ethnic disparities in receipt of resection for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by comparing integrated health system member patients to demographically similar non-member patients. Using data from…

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Effects of Organized Colorectal Cancer Screening on Cancer Incidence and Mortality in a Large, Community-based Population

Little information is available on the effectiveness of organized colorectal cancer (CRC) screening on screening uptake, incidence, and mortality in community-based populations. We contrasted screening rates, age-adjusted annual CRC incidence, and incidence-based mortality rates before (baseline year 2000) and after…

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Association of raltegravir use with long-term health outcomes in HIV-infected patients: an observational post-licensure safety study in a large integrated healthcare system

Raltegravir became the first integrase inhibitor to gain FDA approval; but with limited evidence documenting long-term risks in real world care, especially for major health outcomes of interest. Assess raltegravir safety in clinical practice within an integrated health system. We…

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Associations Between Maternal Obesity and Pregnancy Hyperglycemia and Timing of Pubertal Onset in Adolescent Girls: A Population-Based Study

Early puberty is associated with adverse health outcomes. We investigated whether in utero exposure to maternal obesity is associated with daughters' pubertal timing using 15,267 racially/ethnically diverse Kaiser Permanente Northern California members aged 6-11 years with pediatrician-assessed Tanner staging (2003-2017).…

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High-resolution mapping of traffic related air pollution with Google street view cars and incidence of cardiovascular events within neighborhoods in Oakland, CA

Some studies have linked long-term exposure to traffic related air pollutants (TRAP) with adverse cardiovascular health outcomes; however, previous studies have not linked highly variable concentrations of TRAP measured at street-level within neighborhoods to cardiovascular health outcomes. Long-term pollutant concentrations…

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Prospective Postmarketing Surveillance of Acute Myocardial Infarction in New Users of Saxagliptin: A Population-Based Study

The cardiovascular safety of saxagliptin, a dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 inhibitor, compared with other antihyperglycemic treatments is not well understood. We prospectively examined the association between saxagliptin use and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We identified patients aged ≥18 years, starting from the…

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A real-world, community-based cohort study comparing the effectiveness of topical fluoruracil vs. topical imiquimod for the treatment of actinic keratosis

The most widely used topical agents for the field-based treatment of multiple actinic keratoses (AKs) are 5-fluorouracil and imiquimod, but their comparative effectiveness has not been assessed in a real-world setting. We compared the effectiveness of 5-fluorouracil and imiquimod in…

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Estimating outcomes and cost effectiveness using a single-arm clinical trial: ofatumumab for double-refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

BACKGROUND:Ofatumumab (Arzerra®, Novartis) is a treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia refractory to fludarabine and alemtuzumab [double refractory (DR-CLL)]. Ofatumumab was licensed on the basis of an uncontrolled Phase II study, Hx-CD20-406, in which patients receiving ofatumumab survived for a median…

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